From Ian Crawford <>

I am astonished by several statements in Andrew Glikson's 'Thought for
the Day', but most of all by his assertion that

  "Resources are limited - the $$$trillions required for space
  colonization are the very same $$$trillions required for attempted
  restoration of the terrestrial environment. These are also the same
  $$$trillions required to feed and alleviate the suffering of billions
  of already living human beings"

The $$$trillions required for space colonization are infact the
$$$trillions (actually about $1 trillion pa) currently soaked up by the
military sector of the world economy. A transfer of these resources to
space development would satisfy the same economic vested interests in
the aerospace companies, but would be ethically preferable. In fact,
space development would only require a fairly small fraction of the
global military budget (say 10%)  -- freeing the rest for ethically
desirable developmental projects here on Earth.

Only when, and if, all the global military budgets have been converted
to peaceable global developmental projects will it become legitimate to
criticise the much smaller amounts spent on space development.

Should anyone be interested, I have developed these ideas in more
detail in the "Disarming for the future: changing swords into
spaceships" (New Scientist, 19 May 1990, pp. 67-68), and more recently
in Space Policy, 11, 219-225 (1995).

Ian Crawford,


CCNet DIGEST, 13 January 1999

          From Tom Gehrels <tgehrels@LPL.Arizona.EDU>

          We should keep in mind that e-mail is easily done, without
          the lag of mailing a letter or the benefit of a two-way
          A quick way to remind us of that e-mail weakness is to
          understand it as h-mail, where the h stands for hurt.
          This may help us to hold it down.
          With Cheers!
          Tom Gehrels

    Joe Rao <>

    E.P. Grondine <>

    Ron Baalke <>

    Bernd Pauli <>

    Ron Baalke <>

    Andrew Yee <> wrote:

    Andrew Yee <>


From Joe Rao <>

Anchorage Daily

Tuesday, January 12, 1999

Meteor image lasting
Quake after flash stirred confusion

Daily News reporter

Those lucky enough to have seen the streak of light in the sky that
turned into an incandescent flash and felt its earth-shaking boom
over Southcentral Alaska Friday say they'll never forget it.

What scientists have since judged to have been a larger-than-usual
meteor burning up as it bored through the atmosphere lit up Tom
Habecker's windshield as well as his fancy.

"The thing is burned on my retina," said Habecker, a ranger at Denali
National Park and an astronomy buff. The light that blazed at about
10:20 p.m. Friday "was the biggest thing I've ever seen in the night

"You could feel it traveling through the house," said Candice Bales,
a lawyer who lives in Palmer and felt the boom but never saw the
light. "It came from the Sutton area, as fast as it traveled through
the house. We felt it with our feet."

No trace of the object is known to have been found, Alaska State
Troopers said. Military authorities said no plane or missile or
cannon fire was involved. And contrary to rumors, the Parks Highway
was never shut down because of falling debris, the state Department
of Transportation said.

Mystery and curiosity, however, surrounded the light and the boom
that followed the flash by three or four minutes.

Enough people called authorities Friday night to express concern that
state troopers took a helicopter up to Mount McKinley the next day to
search for a possible area of impact.

The flight Saturday arose partly out of a confusion with another real
event - an earthquake that struck the McKinley area about 50 minutes
after the flash-boom. The small temblor, registering 2.5 on the
Richter scale, occurred at 11:14 p.m. Friday and was centered 45
miles northwest of Talkeetna, said geophysicistBruce Turner with the
Tsunami Warning Center in Palmer.

Among the first calls into the center Friday night was from a worker
with the state emergency services office,Turner said. The worker said
the agency was getting lots of phone calls. He gave the warning
center an approximate time of the boom as between 10 and 11 p.m.,
Turner said.

Turner went to the office and found records of the 11:14 p.m. quake
at McKinley.

The emergency services worker felt state troopers should investigate.
So on Saturday, two troopers picked up Denali's South District ranger
and flew into the area but found nothing, said Jane Tranel, a park

Enough witnesses have reported seeing the flash of light that some
general idea of its trajectory - streaking mostly westward over the
Palmer-Wasilla area - can be guessed.

Habecker was in his car with another ranger and their wives, driving
home to the park after a basketball game in Healy. They were
headingsouth on the Parks Highway less than a mile from the park
entrance, where the highway drops away in front and the view opens

Through the windshield, the sky erupted with light.

"The core was orange, bright orange, and in my mind I still see
sparks coming off of it," Habecker recalled. "Behind the bright white
tail was a long iridescent green-blue tail. It was the most beautiful
green I've ever seen, like a hot gas green."

The object appeared low in the sky to the south and was streaking
left to right, or generally westward, for about five seconds,
Habecker said.

Witnesses in Anchorage reported seeing the object toward the north,
about halfway up the sky, streaking more or less southeast to

The Tsunami Warning Center reported that two seismometers - one in
Palmer and one in Sutton - recorded imprints at 10:22 p.m. from some
explosive event. The one in Sutton recorded it 20 seconds earlier,
said Tom Sokolowski, the center's director.

* Reporter Peter Porco can be reached at

Copyright 1999, Anchorage Daily


From E.P. Grondine <>

From SPACE FRONT: The Quarterly Journal of the Space Frontier Foundation
Volume 6, Number 2 Fall 1998

No Chicken Littles

by Richard Godwin

Even paranoids have enemies. And sometimes Chicken Little is right:
the sky really is falling. Eventually.
Somewhere out there in the vastness of space, something big and very
dangerous is heading towards our fragile planet. The scientific
evidence is in: the notion of a large comet or asteroid colliding with 
Earth is not only real, it's a mathematical certainty. It has happened
before, it will happen again, and it could mean the extinction of our
kind, along with most of the other species on Earth.
Events such as the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet impacts on Jupiter, Hollywood
disaster films and various reports of near misses of the Earth and Moon
by asteroids are at last awakening the public and policy leaders to
this issue. These media events and the attention they have focused on
the threat posed by Near Earth Objects (NEOS) have pointed out the lack
of any cohesive international policies in this area.
It has also become apparent that although some small amounts of funding
are trickling down from governments to support this work, the funds are
minimal, often politicized in their disbursement, usually limited to
those observers in the funding nation, and spent in the wrong areas of
the process.
Clearly, support must be increased for those around the world who
search our skies to find, characterize and track these objects. The
Watch Project was created to address these concerns.
Its primary goals are:
-  To form a core group of the top experts in the field that can act in
   an advisory capacity to the media, entertainment field and
-  To increase the non-governmental funds available to astronomers
   involved in the search for NEO's via new private sector initiatives.
-  To disburse these funds impartially based on input from those actually
   in the field and doing the work.
-  To begin planning concepts for what might need to be done should
   such Earth-threatening objects be discovered.
-  To broaden the public discussion about NEOs to include the promise
   offered by these objects in the form of their recourses, and given
   the growing interest in their utilization, how they might best and
   safely be explored and used for the benefit of the people of Earth.
-  To develop means for amateurs to effectively participate in the search
   for NEOs
The Watch Council is intended to become the world's most important body
of expertise in these areas of concern, and thereby to influence the 
perceptions of the public and policy makers when discussing NEOS, the
levels and type of support required when applying government funds to
NEO investigations, and to act as an independent voice in upcoming
debates on their exploration and utilization.
To that end, we have begun assembling a Blue Ribbon team of exactly
those people now seen as leaders in this field.  Since we are planning
to advise both media and governments, we have focused our membership on
those not employed by governments.
Although we recognize that several of the world's top participants in 
the field are thus excluded from formal participation, we intend on
working closely and consulting often with these important members of
the community.

Currently The Watch Council includes:

- Richard P. Binzel: Professor in the Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and
  Planetary sciences at MIT, a leading authority on the spectra and
  compositions of the near Earth and Belt asteroids.
- Dr.. Tom Gehrels: Professor of Planetary Sciences at the University of
  Arizona, the father and leader of the Spacewatch asteroid search
  programm, which pioneered the use of CCD imaging and real-time
  computer analysis to increase discovery rates of NEOS.
- Dr. Eleanor Helin: renowned astronomer affiliated with Jet Propulsion
  Laboratory, and for many years a pioneer in the discovery of NEOS.
- Dr. John Lewis: University of Arizona, Professor of Planetary
  Sciences and Co-Director of the Space Engineering Research Centre,
  U of Arizona.  Author of 150 research publications as well as the
  popular science books, "Rain of Iron & Ice" and "Mining The Sky."
- Laurel L. Wilkening: Authority on comets and meteorites and editor of
  the major research volume "Comets", has served as Provost of the
  University of Washington and chancellor of the University of
  California at Irvine.  She was a member of The National Commission on
The Watch was started with a grant of $50,000 provided by the
Foundation for the International Non-governmental Development of Space


From Ron Baalke <>

From The "JPL Universe"
January 8, 1999

MUSES CN Progresses

NASA and Japan's space science organization ISAS signed an interim
agreement formally establishing the collaboration on the MUSES C
sample return and rover mission to an asteroid. Last year, the
announcement of opportunity for the MUSES CN science team was
released and proposals were received.

In the area of nanorover and spacecraft engineering, the project
tested the ISAS-developed heat shield materials at NASA's Ames
Research Center. The engineering models of the motors for the MUSES
CN nanorover were delivered to JPL. The rover is about half way
finished with its detailed design, said Project Manager Ross Jones.
In addition, he said, the electronic boards for the software
development model rover were completed.

JPL and The Planetary Society signed a memorandum of understanding
establishing the society as an outreach partner with MUSES CN.


From Bernd Pauli <>

For everybody to enjoy and contemplate - The Little Prince, chapter 4:

I had thus learned a second fact of great importance: this was that
the planet the little prince came from was scarcely any larger than a

But that did not really surprise me much. I knew very well that in
addition to the great planets - such as the Earth, Jupiter, Mars,
Venus  - to which we have given names, there are also hundreds of
others, some of which are so small that one has a hard time seeing
them through the telescope. When an astronomer discovers one of these
he does not give it a name, but only a number. He might call it, for
example, "Asteroid 325."

I have serious reason to believe that the planet from which the little
prince came is the asteroid known as B-612. This asteroid has only
once been seen through the telescope. That was by a Turkish
astronomer, in 1909. On making his discovery, the astronomer had
presented it to the International Astronomical Congress, in a great
demonstration. But he was in Turkish costume, and so nobody would
believe what he said. Grown-ups are like that...
Fortunately, however, for the reputation of Asteroid B-612, a Turkish
dictator made a law that his subjects, under pain of death, should
change to European costume. So in 1920 the astronomer gave his
demonstration all over again, dressed with impressive style and
elegance. And this time everybody accepted his report.

If I have told you these details about the asteroid, and made a note
of its number for you, it is on account of the grown-ups and their
ways. When you tell them that you have made a new friend, they never
ask you any questions about essential matters. They never say to you,
"What does his voice sound like? What games does he love best? Does
he collect butterflies?" Instead, they demand: "How old is he? How
many brothers has he? How much does he weigh? How much money does his
father make?" Only from these figures do they think they have learned
anything about him.

If you were to say to the grown-ups: "I saw a beautiful house made of
rosy brick, with geraniums in the windows and doves on the roof,"
they would not be able to get any idea of that house at all. You
would have to say to them: "I saw a house that cost $ 20,000." Then
they would exclaim: "Oh, what a pretty house that is!"
Just so, you might say to them: "The proof that the little prince
existed is that he was charming, that he laughed, and that he was
looking for a sheep. If anybody wants a sheep, that is a proof that
he exists." And what good would it do to tell them that? They would
shrug their shoulders, and treat you like a child. But if you said to
them: "The planet he came from is Asteroid B-612," then they would be
convinced, and leave you in peace from their questions.

They are like that. One must not hold it against them. Children
should always show great forbearance toward grown-up people.
But certainly, for us who understand life, figures are a matter of
indifference. I should have liked to begin this story in the fashion
of the fairy-tales. I should have liked to say: "Once upon a time
there was a little prince who lived on a planet that was scarcely any
bigger than himself, and who had need of a sheep..."

To those who understand life, that would have given a much greater air
of truth to my story. For I do not want any one to read my book
carelessly. I have suffered too much grief in setting down these
memories. Six years have already passed since my friend went away
from me, with his sheep. If I try to describe him here, it is to make
sure that I shall not forget him. To forget a friend is sad. Not
every one has had a friend. And if I forget him, I may become like
the grown-ups who are no longer interested in anything but figures...

It is for that purpose, again, that I have bought a box of paints and
some pencils. It is hard to take up drawing again at my age, when I
have never made any pictures except those of the boa constrictor from
the outside and the boa constrictor from the inside, since I was six.
I shall certainly try to make my portraits as true to life as
possible. But I am not at all sure of success. One drawing goes along
all right, and another has no resemblance to its subject. I make some
errors, too, in the little prince's height: in one place he is too
tall and in another too short. And I feel some doubts about the color
of his costume. So I fumble along as best I can, now good, now bad,
and I hope generally fair-to-middling.

In certain more important details I shall make mistakes, also. But
that is something that will not be my fault. My friend never
explained anything to me. He thought, perhaps, that I was like
himself. But I, alas, do not know how to see sheep through the walls
of boxes. Perhaps I am a little like the grown-ups. I have had to
grow old.

(Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Le Petit Prince, 1943)


From Ron Baalke <>

PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011

               Deep Space 1 Mission Status
                     January 12, 1999

During the past three weeks, Deep Space 1 has exercised its
autonomous navigation system, an advanced science instrument that
studies space plasma and a radio system that transmits at an
unusually high frequency.  In addition, the spacecraft has continued
to its ion propulsion system and advanced solar array.

The operations team turned the ion propulsion system off December 18
to turn the spacecraft's helm over to the autonomous navigation
system, known as AutoNav. This system, one of the 12 technologies
that Deep Space 1 is validating, is designed to find the spacecraft's
location in the solar system by taking images of known asteroids and
comparing their positions to background stars. Because the autonomous
navigation system knows where the asteroids are and where the more
distant stars are, it can determine where it is in the solar system
when the picture is taken.

AutoNav transitioned into spacecraft control by directing the ion
propulsion system to pressurize its xenon tanks for thrusting,
commanding the spacecraft's attitude control system to turn the
spacecraft to thrust in the direction that AutoNav desired and,
finally, starting the thruster.

AutoNav determines how much power to devote to the ion propulsion
system, which uses electricity to ionize and accelerate xenon. To do
this, AutoNav has knowledge of how much power the advanced solar
arrays can produce and how much power the spacecraft consumes apart
from the ion propulsion system. The spacecraft will consume more
power as it ventures farther from the Sun because it will need to
operate its heaters more.

When the ion propulsion system is thrusting, AutoNav updates both the
direction and the throttle level for the thrusting every 12 hours in
order to follow the flight profile stored on board. So far the
AutoNav system has operated flawlessly.

On December 21, thrusting was suspended for a few hours, during which
AutoNav commanded the spacecraft to turn to point its camera at
asteroids and stars and take images of them.  The images taken are
allowing AutoNav's designers to improve onboard computer routines for
processing such pictures. Previously, all they had was prelaunch
predictions of the camera's performance; now, with actual images, the
routines can be updated. The successful demonstrations of AutoNav's
control over the ion propulsion and attitude control systems and the
camera are another step in transferring many of the responsibilities
normally fulfilled by human controllers to intelligent spacecraft
of the future.

A skeleton team monitored the spacecraft over the holidays, with the
ion propulsion system powered on.

On Tuesday, January 5, AutoNav turned off the ion engine, completing
the first thrust segment of the Deep Space 1 mission. During that
period, the engine accumulated over 850 operating hours and
experienced 59 recycles, which are momentary automatic interruptions,
or shutoffs, of the system, primarily for the system to protect
itself from damage due to drifting particulates. By contrast, in the
first 850 hours of ground testing of the flight-spare ion thruster
ion engine, approximately 240 recycles were experienced. The lower
number of recycles in flight is an  indication that in-space
operation of an ion thruster is more benign than operation in a
vacuum chamber. During the entire thrusting period, the power
processor and the xenon propellant storage/control systems have
worked just as designed.

On Wednesday, January 6, the Plasma Experiment for Planetary
Exploration (PEPE) was turned back on, and new software for the
advanced science instrument was tested. On Friday, January 8, it
was turned to its highest data rate so that it and a plasma
instrument on the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft could make
simultaneous observations of the solar wind. Those observations
continued over the weekend.

On Thursday, January 7, AutoNav again commanded the spacecraft to
turn to point its camera at asteroids and stars and take images of

On Sunday night, January 10, Deep Space 1 participated with the Deep
Space Network in a telecommunications experiment. Deep Space 1
transmitted to the Deep Space Network complex at Goldstone,
California, using a very small, lightweight amplifier made by
Lockheed-Martin for radio signals at a frequency about four times
higher than the current standard frequency used for deep-space
missions. This frequency band, called Ka-band, offers the possibility
of sending more information with less power, important for future
small but capable spacecraft. These tests are helping the Deep Space
Network develop the capability to receive Ka-band routinely for
future spacecraft.

Deep Space 1 is almost 45 times as far away as the Moon now. At this
distance of more than 17 million kilometers (more than 10 million
miles), radio signals sent from Earth take nearly one minute to reach
the spacecraft.


From Andrew Yee <> wrote:

News Services
University of Arizona


J. Roger Angel, 520-621-6541,
Neville J. Woolf, 520-621-3234,
James H. Burge, 520-626-7356,

January 9, 1999

Astronomers propose searching for life on other planets with a plastic

By Mark Sincell

Two decades from now, astronomers may look for life on other planets
using a telescope made of several sheets of reflective plastic in
orbit around the Earth.

At least, that's the idea that Roger Angel, a professor at The
University of Arizona's Steward Observatory, and co-workers Neville
Woolf and James Burge, also of Steward Observatory, are presenting at
today's meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Austin,
Texas. Glass or metal telescopes large enough to make the first
detection of life on planets outside our solar system are planned,
but switching to lighter and cheaper plastic may be a crucial step
towards a more detailed study of our extra-terrestrial neighbors.

The search for definitive evidence of life on planets orbiting other
stars, called exoplanets, has become one of NASA's primary
objectives. A primary goal of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM),
an orbiting telescope scheduled for launch in 2003, is to search for
exoplanets. SIM is unlikely to detect planets travel out past
Jupiter's orbit with the goal of finding Earth-like planets and
searching them for signs of life.

Angel sees his proposed telescope as the next step on the path.
"PlanetFinder will give us a good first shot at finding evidence for
life," says Angel, "but to study planets transformed by life, fecund
life, you really need a larger telescope." The envisioned orbiting
plastic telescope would have a total light collecting area of about
1,000 square meters.

But those expecting the new telescope to deliver snapshots of smiling
extra-terrestrials on vacation will be disappointed. Angel's team
estimates that even crudely resolved images of exoplanets would
require an array of mirrors with a collecting area equivalent to a
one kilometer diameter mirror, over a hundred times larger than the
8-meter primary mirror that will be used in the Next Generation Space
Telescope (NGST).

Instead, astronomers plan to look for features in the exoplanets'
thermal radiation spectrum left by oxygen and methane in the planet's
atmosphere. Greenhouse gases such as oxygen and methane are a direct
product of all the biological processes occurring on the Earth's
surface. Although these molecules are common in the Earth's
atmosphere, they are actually very unstable in combination and, if
there were no life on Earth, they would rapidly combine. Finding
evidence for both molecules is "the killer test" for life on other
planets, says Angel.

Even with a large telescope, gathering enough light from the planet,
and then separating it from the light radiated by the planet's own
sun, is a formidable task. To accomplish this feat, planet-hunters
plan to use a technique called interferometry, in which the light
from the planet and its sun is reflected off different mirrors,
forming two or more separate beams of light. These beams are then
directed to a single detector where they are added up so that the
light waves from the star cancel out and only the light from the
planet remains.

The most straightforward way to perform space interferometry is to
put several telescopes in orbit and combine their light. However, to
detect exoplanetary greenhouse gases, each of these telescopes would
have to be comparable in size to the NGST. Building and flying
several copies of the NGST would be prohibitively expensive.

The idea proposed by Angel, Woolf, and Burge is to replace all but
one of the telescopes with flat plastic mirrors, each about 10 meters
square. The plastic reflecting surface is attached to a metal frame
at several points that can be adjusted independently to preserve the
planarity of the membrane.

Since the plastic mirrors are flat, they are relatively easy to build
and maintain. "The main difficulty with curved mirrors is making them
curved," says Angel, "Nature wants plastic to be flat." And
micrometeorites, which periodically crash into satellites, pass right
through the plastic.

To form the complete telescope, the plastic membrane mirrors are
distributed in space over 100 meters apart, approximately 1 kilometer
away from a central 10-meter space telescope, similar in design to
the NGST. Light from the exoplanet is reflected off of the plastic
mirrors and into the central telescope, where the different beams are
"interfered" to remove the light from the star. "We can correct for
the missing curvature of the flat mirrors inside the one telescope,
in the same way that the optics in the Hubble Space Telescope were
fixed", says Angel.

There are two main challenges to be met before plastic
interferometric telescopes start scanning our cosmic neighborhood.
First, the plastic surfaces have to be extremely smooth and uniform
in thickness so that they reflect light very accurately. Learning how
to manufacture plastic of such high smoothnesses will take "a lot of
work", warns Angel.

Then, once the plastic is smooth, the entire array of mirrors,
including the central telescope, must be kept in place, either by
mounting the mirrors on a rigid carbon composite truss or by
attaching small ion propulsion rockets to individual, free-flying,
mirrors. Assembling and deploying such a network requires technology
beyond that needed for even NGST.

Ultimately, how accurate will this telescope's design be? As a
comparison, in recent demonstrations at The University of Arizona and
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., the light from two
lasers has been made to cancel to one part in ten thousand. To remove
the light from the star and observe the spectrum of a nearby planet,
the light from the star must be canceled to one part in ten million.
And it will all be done in a telescope orbiting thousands of miles
from the Earth.


From Andrew Yee <>

University of California-Los Angeles

Contact: David Brown,
         (310) 206-0540

January 7, 1999

Internet turns 30

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the birth of the Internet at

It was on the UCLA campus in 1969 that the first Internet connection
was established, ushering in a new method of communication that today
spans the globe and touches the lives of millions worldwide.

The federal government chose UCLA to become the first node of what
was then known as the ARPANET because the faculty included Professor
Leonard Kleinrock, whose research into "packet switching" provided
the technological foundation upon which the network was to be built.

The ARPANET -- which later became the Internet -- was funded by the
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), created in 1958 to support
scientific research in the United States. Its creation was prompted
by the Soviet Union's success in placing the "Sputnik" satellite in

ARPA had been supporting a number of computer scientists around the
country in the 1960s. As each new researcher was added, ARPA had to
provide him with a computer, and each researcher asked for all the
special capabilities that existed in the many unique computers that
ARPA was supporting. By connecting the existing computers together
via a data network, ARPA officials reasoned, the community of
scientists would be able to gain access to the special features of
all those specialized computers.

The first network switch, known as an Interface Message Processor
(IMP), arrived at UCLA on the Labor Day weekend 1969. The UCLA team
led by Kleinrock had to connect the first host computer to the IMP.
This was a challenging task since no such connection had ever been
attempted before. However, by the end of that first day, bits began
moving between the UCLA computer and the IMP. By the next day,
researchers had messages moving between the machines.

"Little did those pioneers realize what they had created," Kleinrock
said, reflecting upon history. "In fact, most of the ARPA-supported
researchers were opposed to joining the network for fear that it
would enable outsiders to load down their 'private' computers," he

By December 1969, four sites were connected: UCLA, Stanford Research
Institute, UC Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. UCLA was in
charge of conducting a series of extensive tests to debug the
network. Under Kleinrock's supervision, UCLA served for many years as
the ARPANET Network Measurement Center.

In one ambitious experiment during the mid-1970s, researchers at UCLA
were able to control a geosynchronous satellite hovering over the
Atlantic Ocean by sending messages through the network from
California to an East Coast satellite dish.

Ten nodes spanning the United States had been connected by the summer
of 1970. Kleinrock noted that the Cambridge-based computer company
which designed the original IMP -- Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) --
never imagined there would be a need for more than 64 host computers
in the network and provided only that number of connections. Today,
of course, there are over 50 million computers attached to the
Internet -- and that number is expanding at a phenomenal rate;
moreover, traffic on the Internet doubles every 100 days.

Curiously enough, electronic mail (e-mail), which today is a major
component of the network traffic, was an ad-hoc, add-on to the
network in those early days, Kleinrock said.

The ARPANET evolved into the Internet in the 1980s and was discovered
by the commercial world toward the end of that decade. Originally
conceived and built by -- and for -- the scientific research
community, it is dominated today by the commercial sector.

"Indeed, no one in those early days predicted how enormously
successful and pervasive data networking would become," Kleinrock

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