PLEASE NOTE:


*

CCNet, 26/2000 - 1 March 2000
-----------------------------


     POEM OF THE DAY
      - In memory of the victims of the Inquisition and the Holocaust


     CAMPO DEI FIORI

     In Rome on the Campo dei Fiori
     baskets of olives and lemons,
     cobbles spattered with wine
     and the wreckage of flowers.
     Vendors cover the trestles
     with rose-pink fish;
     armfuls of dark grapes
     heaped on peach-down.

     On this same square
     they burned Giordano Bruno.
     Henchmen killed the pyre
     close-pressed by the mob.
     Before the flames had died
     the taverns were full again,
     baskets of olives and lemons
     again on the vendors' shoulders.

     I thought of the Campo dei Fiori
     in Warsaw by the sky-carousel
     one clear spring evening
     to the strains of a carnaval tune.
     The bright melody drowned
     the salvos from the ghetto wall,
     and couples were flying
     high in the cloudless sky.

     At times wind from the burning
     would drift dark kites along
     and riders on the carousel
     caught pedals in midair.
     That same hot wind
     blew open the skirts of the girls
     and the crowds were laughing
     on that beautiful Warsaw Sunday.

     Someone will read as moral
     that the people of Rome or Warsaw
     haggle, laugh, make love
     as they pass by martyrs' pyres.
     Someone else will read
     of the passing of things human,
     of the oblivion
     born before the flames have died.

     But that day I thought only
     of the loneliness of the dying,
     of how, when Giordano
     climbed to his burning
     he could not find
     in any human tongue
     words for mankind,
     mankind who live on.

     Already they were back at their wine
     or peddled their white starfish,
     baskets of lives and lemons
     they had shouldered to the fair,
     and already distanced
     as if centuries had passed
     while they paused just a moment
     for his flying in the fire.

     Those dying here, the lonely
     forgotten by the world,
     our tongue becomes for them
     the language of an ancient planet.
     Until, when all is legend
     and many years have passed,
     on a new Campo dei Fiori
     rage will kindle at a poet's word.

     Czeslaw Milosz
     Warsaw, 1943


(1) EROS IN FULL COLOUR
    Ron Baalke <baalke@jpl.nasa.gov>

(2) GOING COMET WILD
    Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov>

(3) A FOREST FROM THE PAST: GETTING CLOSER TO A SMOKING GUN
    Bob Kobres <bkobres@uga.edu>

(4) GLOBAL WARMING: THE CONTRARIAN VIEW
    THE NEW YORK TIMES, 29 February 2000

(5) ABRUPT END TO LITTLE ICE AGE
    Explorzezone, 29 February 2000

(6) THE FATE OF GREENLAND'S VIKINGS
    ARCHAEOLOGY, 28 February 2000

(7) ENVIRONMENTS OF THE ROSETTA TARGET ASTEROIDS
    A. Rossi & M. Fulchignoni, CNR,CNUCE

(8) VIRTIS: IMAGING SPECTROMETER OF THE ROSETTA MISSION
    A. Coradini et la.,  IST ASTROFIS SPAZIALE,CNR,

(9) ASTEROID 4979 OTAWARA: FLYBY TARGET OF ROSETTA
    A. Doressoundiram et al., CALTECH,JET PROP LAB,

(10) WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SATURN V PLANS ?
     Paul Shawcross <pshawcro@hq.nasa.gov>

(11) FORGET ABOUT SATURN V
     Geoffrey V. Hughes <ghughes@rotaryrocket.com>

(12) ALU FOIL & SOLAR SAILING
     Michael Paine <mpaine@tpgi.com.au>

(13) SOLAR SAIL SPACECRAFT & SMALL BODIES EXPLORATIONS
     M.V. Pomazanov*) & V.A. Yegorov, MOSCOW MV LOMONOSOV STATE UNIV.

(14) MOON
     Malcolm Miller <stellar2@actonline.com.au>

(15) AND FINALLY, PLANETARY DEFENSE LA WOODY ALLEN:
     GIANT BREAST CAN SAVE THE WORLD
     Christian Gritzner <Christian.Gritzner@cargolifter.com>

===================
(1) EROS IN FULL COLOUR

From Ron Baalke <baalke@jpl.nasa.gov>

NEAR image of the day for 2000 Feb 28
http://near.jhuapl.edu/iod/20000228/index.html

Eros' bland butterscotch colors

These color images of Eros was acquired by NEAR on February 12, 2000,
at a range of 1800 kilometers (1100 miles) during the final approach
imaging sequence prior to orbit insertion. A five and one-half hour
long sequence of images covering visible and infrared wavelengths was
taken at that time, to provide a global overview of the color and
spectral properties of the asteroid. The images show approximately the
color that Eros would appear to the unaided human eye.

Eros' subtle butterscotch hue at visible wavelengths is nearly uniform
across the surface. Two days after these images were taken, mapping by
NEAR's infrared spectrometer showed that Eros exhibits a great deal
more variety at longer wavelengths. These variations could be due to
differences in texture or composition of the surface. Both NEAR's
multispectral imager and infrared spectrometer will be used extensively
during the month of March to map Eros' color and spectral properties
from an altitude of 200 kilometers (120 miles). The images to be
returned will show details as small as 20 meters (68 feet) across,
providing a new perspective on the asteroid's many fascinating
landforms discovered so far by NEAR.

--------------------------------------------------------
Built and managed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics
Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, NEAR was the first spacecraft launched in
NASA's Discovery Program of low-cost, small-scale planetary missions.
See the NEAR web page at http://near.jhuapl.edu for more details.

=================
(2) GOING COMET WILD

From Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov>
http://spacescience.com/headlines/y2000/ast27feb_2.htm

Going Comet Wild
Space Science News

NASA's STARDUST spacecraft, bound for comet Wild-2, celebrated its
first year in space this month.

February 28, 2000: In February 1999, NASA's STARDUST spacecraft blasted
off from the Kennedy Space Center for a daring encounter with periodic
comet Wild-2. Its ambitious goal is to intercept Wild-2 in 2004, to
capture tiny bits of comet dust and debris, and then return them to
Earth for analysis in 2006. On the way, STARDUST will also sample a
stream of dust particles from outside the solar system.

STARDUST is the first comet rendezvous mission since the European
Giotto spacecraft's fly-by of Comet Halley (1986) and Comet
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup (1992), and the first ever to attempt to return a
comet sample to Earth. It's a long 7-year mission, but one most
scientists feel is worth the wait.

"I'm Here! I'm OK!"

After one year in space STARDUST is doing well, say project officials.
The spacecraft has executed several flawless course adjustments, and
last week it deployed its aerogel collector for a first-ever sampling
of interstellar dust particles. Still, STARDUST has given mission
controllers their share of sleepless nights.

"There have been storms to sail through," recounts STARDUST project
manager Dr. Kenneth Atkins in a recent commemorative essay. "The first
attempt to move from gyro-stabilized control to pure star-referencing
found a software bug that caused the spacecraft [to go into safe mode].
When the ship invokes this routine, it shuts down all unnecessary
activities, including communications with Earth, and turns to the Sun
to ensure the lifeblood of solar energy floods its batteries and
electronics with electricity. When it deems all is well, it sets up a
plan to contact us on Earth, tell us what happened, and let us tell it
what to do next. This routine, while carefully designed to protect the
spacecraft, is still an 'anxiety event' for the crew back on Earth.
It's a bit like the feeling when your teenager is late coming home, and
you get no phone call. The anxiety builds fear until the dutiful
signal comes through. 'I'm here!' 'I'm O.K.!'"

STARDUST and its crew have successfully navigated three more safe mode
events, all involving data handling by on-board software.

What's all the fuss about Wild-2?

Scientists are curious about comets because they are thought to be the
oldest, most primitive bodies in the solar system. Comets are made up
of the same stuff as the early Solar Nebula that collapsed to form the
sun and planets. It is now known that comets contain significant
amounts of water ice, dust, and carbon based compounds. They may have
been an important source of water and organic molecules for Earth when
many comets collided with our planet during a period of heavy
bombardment over 4 billion years ago. Modern-day comets are like a time
machine. They offer a window into the past when the Solar System was
young and life on Earth was just beginning.

History is filled with famous comets. Halley's comet, Hale-Bopp,
Hyakutake and others have dazzled observers with their brilliant nuclei
and dramatic tails. Recent comets like Hale-Bopp have been viewed by
hundreds of millions of people, and Halley's comet has had a real
impact on history, as in 1066 when it was so bright that it terrified
millions of Europeans and was widely credited with the Norman victory
at the Battle of Hastings.

Unlike its famous cousins, comet Wild-2 is a relatively dim, new
arrival to the inner solar system. Before September 1974, when it
passed within 0.006 AU of Jupiter, Wild-2 circled the Sun in an orbit
between Jupiter and Uranus. That encounter with the giant planet, at
only 10 times the distance which fragmented P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994,
altered Wild-2's orbit so that its closest approach to the Sun now lies
just inside the orbit of Mars.

During its first passage by Earth (1.21 AU) on January 6, 1978, the
comet was discovered by Paul Wild. Since then, the best apparition of
Wild-2 was in March 1997 when it passed within 0.85 AU of our planet,
brightening to an unimpressive 10th magnitude. That's too faint to be
seen with the naked eye, but bright enough for modest amateur
telescopes.

So, why visit an obscure, hard-to-see object like Wild-2, when there
are so many more notorious comets to choose from? There are two
important reasons:

#1 It's fresh. Before its near miss with Jupiter in 1974 comet Wild-2
was well-preserved in the frigid outer solar system. With its new
orbit, Wild-2 now comes much closer to the Sun. When a comet passes
close enough to the Sun, some of its material is boiled off into
interplanetary space. After about a thousand trips past the Sun, it
loses most of its volatile materials and no longer generates a coma or
tail. Since Wild-2 has passed the Sun only a few times, it still has
most of its dust and gases - it is "pristine." By the time STARDUST
encounters the comet, Wild-2 will have made only five trips around the
Sun. By contrast, Comet Halley has passed the Sun more than 100 times.

#2 It's in the right place at the right time. Wild-2 presents a unique
opportunity -- it is in the right place at the right time. Scientists
have found a flight path that allows the spacecraft to fly by the comet
at a relatively low speed, only 13,600 mph. Because of this "low
velocity" flyby, comet dust can be captured by collectors on the
spacecraft, rather than blowing right through the collectors and out
the back side! This comet dust can then be brought back to the Earth to
be analyzed.

If comet Wild-2 had passed much closer to Jupiter in 1974, it might
have ended up like comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. Comet SL-9 was often
referred to as the "string of pearls" comet. It is famous for its
suggestive appearance as well as its collision with the planet Jupiter!
The comet's original single nucleus was torn to pieces by Jupiter's
strong gravity during a close encounter with the solar system's largest
planet in 1992.

After the flyby is done, STARDUST will return to Earth. In 2006 the
craft's aerogel sample collectors will descend by parachute toward the
U.S. Air Force Test and Training range in Utah, about 100 miles
southwest of Salt Lake City in the desert. By the time the mission is
over, comet Wild-2 -- dim, obscure, and little-known -- will take its
rightful place in the pantheon of historic comets.

=================
(3) A FOREST FROM THE PAST: GETTING CLOSER TO A SMOKING GUN

From Bob Kobres <bkobres@uga.edu>

An amazing find of five acres of ancient [~10,000+ years old] forest,
still standing and nearly perfectly preserved, down to the moss on the
limbs of the trees.

From:
http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DyeHard/dyehard.html

"If you look at the tree rings you can look at the microclimate (which
determines growth) in this area right before it warmed up,” Bornhorst
says. “One of the really fascinating things is we don’t see any
indicators that the climate was going to warm up.

"That has some practical significance. If nature didn’t give any
warning then, what about today?

"All of a sudden it warmed up, the glaciers poured the water down and
buried them, and boom, they’re gone,” Bornhorst says.

"Researchers examined the tree rings, expecting to find some sign that
the climate was changing so rapidly.

Lessons for Today?

"Is there an indicator 50 years before that something’s going to
happen?” Bornhorst says. “It doesn’t seem like it in the tree rings.”
The results at this point are far from conclusive, but Bornhorst and
others think the ancient forest may be telling us that major climatic
changes may occur without warning.

The trees in the ancient forest, he suggests, should have sensed that
it was getting warmer and that should have been reflected in their rate
of growth. But apparently they didn’t.

Now, all these years later, those ancient trees seem to be raising the
same question today that they did 10,000 years ago: Does anybody really
know what’s going on? 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

'Might be getting closer to a smoking gun! ;^)
bobk

====================
(4) GLOBAL WARMING: THE CONTRARIAN VIEW

From THE NEW YORK TIMES, 29 February 2000
http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/022900sci-environ-climate.html

Global Warming: The Contrarian View

By WILLIAM K. STEVENS

Over the years, skeptics have tried to cast doubt on the idea of global
warming by noting that measurements taken by earth satellites since 
1979 have found little or no temperature rise in large parts of the
upper atmosphere.

The satellites' all-encompassing coverage yields more reliable results
than temperature samplings showing a century-long warming trend at the
earth's surface, they argued.

In January, a special study by the National Research Council, the 
research arm of the National Academy of Sciences, declared that the
"apparent disparity" between the two sets of measurements over the
20-year history of the satellite measurements "in no way invalidates
the conclusion that surface temperature has been rising." The surface
warming "is undoubtedly real," the study panel said.

But the dissenters are a long way from conceding the debate, and they 
have seized on other aspects of the panel's report in an effort to 
bolster their case.

To be sure, according to interviews with some prominent skeptics, there
is now wide agreement among them that the average surface temperature
of the earth has indeed risen.

"I don't think we're arguing over whether there's any global warming,"
said Dr. William M. Gray, an atmospheric scientist at Colorado State
University, known for his annual predictions of Atlantic hurricane
activities as well as his staunch, longtime dissent on global climate
change.

"The question is, 'What is the cause of it?' "

On that issue, and on the remaining big question of how the climate might
change in the future, skeptics continue to differ sharply with the dominant
view among climate experts.

The dominant view is that the surface warming is at least partly
attributable to emissions of heat-trapping waste industrial gases
like carbon dioxide, a product of the burning of fossil fuels like
coal, oil and natural gas.

A United Nations scientific panel has predicted that unless these
greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, the earth's average surface
temperature will rise by some 2 to 6 degrees Fahrenheit over the next
century, with a best estimate of about 3.5 degrees, compared with a rise
of 5 to 9 degrees since the depths of the last ice age 18,000 to 20,000
years ago. This warming, the panel said, would touch off widespread
disruptions in climate and weather and cause the global sea level to rise
and flood many places.

Dr. Gray and others challenge all of this. To them, the observed
surface warming of about 1 degree over the last century -- with an
especially sharp rise in the last quarter century -- is mostly or
wholly natural, and there is no significant human influence on
global climate.

They also adhere firmly to their long-held opinion that any future
warming will be inconsequential or modest at most, and that its
effects will largely be beneficial.

FULL STORY at
http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/022900sci-environ-climate.html

Copyright 2000, The New York Times Newpapers Ltd.

=====================
(5) ABRUPT END TO LITTLE ICE AGE

From Explorzezone, 29 February 2000
http://explorezone.com/archives/00_02/29_volcano_evidence.htm

Wyoming ice hints at abrupt end to Little Ice Age

Samples of ice retrieved from a Wyoming glacier show evidence of ancient
volcanic eruptions and indicate the the Little Ice Age ended abruptly, a
new study shows.

Two of the largest volcanic eruptions in human history occurred in the
Indonesia Islands in the year 1815 and again in 1883. Although these
catastrophes claimed thousands of lives and affected the climate on a
global scale, they also created a unique opportunity for future
scientists.

For up to two years following each eruption, the Earth's weather washed
out the dust and aerosols in the form of sulfuric and nitric acids,
leaving behind a chemical "fingerprint" in the rain and snow.

FULL STORY at
http://explorezone.com/archives/00_02/29_volcano_evidence.htm

=====================
(6) THE FATE OF GREENLAND'S VIKINGS

From ARCHAEOLOGY, 28 February 2000
http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/greenland/index.html

By D. M. Brown

Some people call it the Farm under the Sand, others Greenland's
Pompeii. Dating to the mid-fourteenth century, it was once the site of
a Viking colony founded along the island's grassy southwestern coast
that stretches in a fjord-indented ribbon between the glaciers and the
sea. Archaeologists Jette Arneborg of the Danish National Museum, Joel
Berglund of the Greenland National Museum, and Claus Andreasen of
Greenland University could not have guessed what would be revealed when
they excavated the ruins of the five-room, stone-and-turf house in the
early 1990s.

As the archaeologists dug through the permafrost and removed the
windblown glacial sand that filled the rooms, they were startled to
find a large wooden loom with a length of unfinished woolen cloth still
attached. Scattered about were other household belongings, including an
iron knife, whetstones, soapstone vessels, and a double-edged comb.
Whoever lived here departed so hurriedly that they left behind iron and
caribou antler arrows, weapons needed for survival in this harsh
country, medieval Europe's farthest frontier. What drove the occupants
away? Where did they go?

FULL STORY at
http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/greenland/index.html

====================
(7) ENVIRONMENTS OF THE ROSETTA TARGET ASTEROIDS

A. Rossi*) & M. Fulchignoni: Environments of the ROSETTA target
asteroids. ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH, 1999, Vol.24, No.9, pp.1087-1093

*) CNR,CNUCE,VIA S MARIA 36,I-56126 PISA,ITALY

The ROSETTA spacecraft will fly-by a few asteroids during its course to
the final cometary target. The candidate asteroids presently are 140
Siwa (C-type) and 4979 Otawara. An alternative interesting trajectory
reaching four asteroids (5331 Erimomisaki, 905 Universitas, 1515
Perrotin and 4247 Grahamsmith) has also been found by ESA. With the
limited data presently available on these bodies we calculated some
approximate quantities which may be useful to select the fly-by
trajectories of the ROSETTA probe. Some first information are
provided by the classical quantities such as the radius of the
Hill sphere. Then, exploiting the results of Hamilton and Burns (1991),
we determined the orbital stability zone, i.e. the union of all the
numerically integrated orbits showing long-term stability, for each of
the above asteroids. As was suggested by Hamilton and Burns (1991) the
particular shape of these zones would suggest to have the spacecraft's
close approach out of the orbital plane of the asteroids. The results
of a large set of numerical integrations are then presented,
strengthening and broadening the conclusions of the analytical
calculations. The stability zone appears to be severely limited by the
effect of the solar radiation pressure which sweeps away small
particles from the asteroid vicinity. In the case of 140 Siwa the
borders of the zone (for mm-sized particles) stretch to about 420 R-A
in the X - Y plane and 162 R-A in the Z direction, mainly due to the
apocenter distance reached by particles placed on initial highly
eccentric orbits. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

=============
(8) VIRTIS: IMAGING SPECTROMETER OF THE ROSETTA MISSION

A. Coradini*), F. Capaccioni, P. Drossart, A. Semery, G. Arnold,
U. Schade: VIRTIS: The imaging spectrometer of the ROSETTA mission.
ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH, 1999, Vol.24, No.9, pp.1095-1104

*) IST ASTROFIS SPAZIALE,CNR,REPARTO PLANETOL,VIA FOSSO
   CAVALIERE,I-00133 ROME,ITALY

The study of minor bodies of the Solar System is acquiring an
increasing importance in recent years thanks to new space missions,
such as NEAR, and to new ground based observations. However none of the
presently planned missions will be able to study targets, such as
asteroids and comets with such a complete and state-of-the-art-
payload, as will Rosetta mission. Rosetta will study in detail a comet
nucleus, the prime target of the mission following it from large
distances (more than 3 AU) inbound up to almost 1 AU from the Sun. This
will permit the detection of the beginning of the cometary activity, as
well as determining the composition of emitted gases. At the same time,
modification of the cometary surface will be observed and analysed.
Detailed in situ analysis will be performed by the Surface Science
Package (SSP), thus allowing not only a detailed analysis of the
selected landing site, but also establishing ground truth for the
remote sensing experiment. VIRTIS (Visible Infra Red Thermal Imaging
Spectrometer) is fundamental to the detection and study of the
evolution of the typical spectral bands of minerals and molecules
characterising the comet surface as well as those of gases and dust
dispersed in the coma. Their identification is a primary goal of the
Rosetta mission; this will allow the identification the nature of the
main constituent of the comets. Moreover, the surface thermal evolution
during comet approach to sun will be monitored. In this paper the
VIRTIS design and its detailed science goals are reported. (C) 1999
COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

==============
(9) ASTEROID 4979 OTAWARA: FLYBY TARGET OF ROSETTA

A. Doressoundiram*), P.R. Weissman, M. Fulchignoni, M.A. Barucci, A.
LeBras, F. Colas, J. Lecacheux, M. Birlan, M. Lazzarin, S. Fornasier,
E. Dotto, C. Barbieri, M.V. Sykes, S. Larson, C. Hergenrother: 4979
Otawara: flyby target of the Rosetta mission. ASTRONOMY AND
ASTROPHYSICS, 1999, Vol.352, No.2, pp.697-702

*) CALTECH,JET PROP LAB,4800 OAK GROVE DR,PASADENA,CA,91109

An international observing campaign was organized to determine the
physical and chemical characteristics of asteroid 4979 Otawara, which
is the first target of the Rosetta mission (flyby on July 10, 2006).
Knowledge of the physical parameters of the flyby targets is required
for both refinement of the design of the spacecraft and the instrument
payload, and optimization of the mission trajectory and scenarios. We
present the results of observations obtained from December, 1998
through March, 1999. The spectral classification of 4979 Otawara could
be either a pyroxene and/or olivine-rich S-type asteroid or a V-type
asteroid, a member of the Vesta dynamical family. Further observations
are needed in order to discriminate between the two spectral types. The
synodic rotation period of Otawara is P-syn = 2.107 +/- 0.005 hr. The
lower limit for the axial ratio of the enveloping ellipsoid is a/b
greater than or equal to 1.3. The circular effective radius is 2.0 or
1.3 km in the case of an S-type or a V-type asteroid, respectively. A
lower limit on its density is obtained: rho(min) greater than or equal
to 1.9 g cm(-3) if we assume that Otawara is an aggregate or rubble
pile object. However, if Otawara is a single solid body, no constraint
can be set on its density. 4979 Otawara is a small, fast rotating
asteroid (FRA) and hence, will be a particularly interesting target to
be studied from a spacecraft, since no fast rotator has been visited
yet. Copyright 2000, Institute for Scientific Information Inc.

=============================
* LETTERS TO THE MODERATOR *
=============================

(10) WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SATURN V PLANS ?

From Paul Shawcross <pshawcro@hq.nasa.gov>

The recurring legend of the destruction of the Saturn V blueprints is  
discussed in the sci.space FAQ:

http://www.faqs.org/faqs/space/controversy/

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SATURN V PLANS

Despite a widespread belief to the contrary, the Saturn V blueprints
have not been lost. They are kept at Marshall Space Flight Center on
microfilm. The Federal Archives in East Point, GA also has 2900 cubic
feet of Saturn documents. Rocketdyne has in its archives dozens of
volumes from its Knowledge Retention Program. This effort was initiated
in the late '60s to document every facet of F-1 and J-2 engine 
production to assist in any future re-start.

The problem in re-creating the Saturn V is not finding the drawings, it
is finding vendors who can supply mid-1960's vintage hardware (like
guidance system components), and the fact that the launch pads and
VAB  have been converted to Space Shuttle use, so you have no place to
launch from.

By the time you redesign to accommodate available hardware and
re-modify the launch pads, you may as well have started from scratch
with a clean sheet design.

Other references:

Several AIAA papers delivered in recent years discuss reviving the
Saturn V. For example, AIAA paper 92-1546, "Launch Vehicles for the
Space Exploration Initiative". This paper concluded that a revived
Saturn V was actually cheaper than the NLS vehicle.

An overview of the infrastructure still available to support production
of a 1990s Saturn V and how that vehicle might be used to support
First Lunar Outpost missions can be found in the December 1993 issue of
*Spaceflight*, published by the British Interplanetary Society.

Paul Shawcross
NASA Office of Inspector General
Mail Code W
Room 8Z61
NASA Headquarters
Washington, DC  20546-0001
paul.shawcross@hq.nasa.gov
Voice:  (202) 358-2558
Fax:  (202) 358-2990

=================
(11) FORGET ABOUT SATURN V

From Geoffrey V. Hughes <ghughes@rotaryrocket.com>

Benny,

Trust that this is the correct place to respond.

There is no point in even contemplating trying to rebuild the Saturn V.
Having a complete set of Saturn V blueprints would do us no good
whatsoever. True, we would still be able to bend the big pieces of
metal etc fairly easily. But they are not the problem. The real problem
is the hundreds of thousands of other parts, some as apparently
insignificant as a bolt or a washer, that are simply not manufactured
any more. Replacements would have to be found and requalifed but to
what standard? Everything would have to be redone. So a simple rebuild
would be impossible. Yes, impossible is the correct term. Sorry.

Attempting to replicate what was done forty years ago by a
now-disbanded group of retired or deceased people based on a forty-year
old industrial base, would be an enormous challenge. Not only don't the
design teams exist, but the parts don't exist and the companies that
manufactured the parts don't exist. To attempt to resurrect them would
be pure folly.

Given this situation, what would happen of course, is that a simple
rebuild would then turn into a new and improved version which would
turn into a runaway money sink.

The only real answer would be to start from scratch and build anew
using modern parts and processes. Yet another immense challenge!!

Geoffrey V. Hughes
VP Sales & Marketing
Rotary Rocket Company
Voice: 650.298.3305
Fax:     650.298.3301
Cell:    415.307.7495
WWWeb:rotaryrocket.com

=================
(12) ALU FOIL & SOLAR SAILING

From Michael Paine <mpaine@tpgi.com.au>

Dear Benny,

Re: Konrad Ebisch's comments about wrapping planetoids in aluminum
foil.

To be fair to Jay Melosh this was not his 'proposal' - I actually
asked him whether the idea might work when researching my Space.com
article. He responded:

*A change in reflectivity was suggested to me by several russians
(they said, "all you have to do it paint it!"), but if you evaluate
the amount of deflection possible it is a poor bet--and gets worse as
the object gets bigger, since the surface area does as diameter
squared, but the mass as diameter cubed....[furthermore, it and a
reflective balloon]...can only apply a force radial to the sun, which
is the least helpful vector*

As I point out in my article, the non-nuclear method that Jay favours
most is the solar collector (to concentrate sunlight and vaporise
material on the surface of the asteroid). It seems to me that we ought
to be experimenting with this technique - it would make a good
'exercise for students' and perhaps a getaway special on the Shuttle
or ISS.

regards
Michael Paine

P.S. I found something to add

Russians May Hoist Europe's Solar Sail
http://space.com/space/technology/russian_solar_sail_000229.html
'ESA is currently considering using the Russian Dnepr booster to launch
and deploy a solar sail measuring over 65 by 65 feet (20 by 20
meters)...'

-----------------------
MODERATOR’S NOTE: I have attached a related abstract below.

(13) SOLAR SAIL SPACECRAFT & SMALL BODIES EXPLORATIONS

M.V. Pomazanov*) & V.A. Yegorov: On attainability of small bodies by
use of the solar sail spacecraft. ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH, 1999,
Vol.24, No.9, pp.1175-1183

*) MOSCOW MV LOMONOSOV STATE UNIV,FAC PHYS,DEPT MATH,MOSCOW
   119899,RUSSIA

The unrotating self-opening solar sail spacecraft with the design
briefly explained here have been assume to use for the multitarget
programs of small bodies exploration. The calculations of the sail mass
taking into account the sail stability show, that the modern technology
permits to reduce the sail mass to 15-30 % of the complete spacecraft
mass which is supposed to be about 100 kg. The spacecraft with a solar
sail can make the survey of asteroids by flying close to its surface
and can make the distant capture of the small body ground sample at
close contact. The technique and results of the calculations of the
minimal flyby time transfer trajectories of the spacecraft with solar
sail to the asteroids or comets are presented. The calculations are
proceed for the period 1998-2001 and for the starts of a solar sail
vehicle from the circular heliocentric orbits of the Earth, Mars or
small planet Vesta. It is shown that for any arrival date always exist
the a-steroid (or comet) that can be achieved during 5-10 months flyby
time. The solar sail lightness number (the ratio of the maximal thrust
to the solar attraction) alpha = 0.083 was chosen and more 6300 well
known asteroids were examined, The influence of this parameter alpha to
the transfer duration is considered also. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by
Elsevier Science Ltd.

=====================
(14) MOON

From Malcolm Miller < stellar2@actonline.com.au >

Dear Benny,

I had to chuckle at the confusion - including my own - about the
inclination of the Moon's orbit. I've been fortunate to live where the
sky can be seen most of the year and to work all night with
pre-computer-age telescopes, and I can visualise the Moon's wandering
path among the stars, clearly adding or subtracting its own 5 degrees
of inclination to the ecliptic to the 23.5 degrees tilt of Earth's
axis, which puts the celestial equator at an angle to the ecliptic. So
while the celestial equator is close to the Orion Nebula, the ecliptic
is not, and the Moon doesn't occult the Nebula.

Maybe there's a lesson in this - what we say is not always what we
know!

Malcolm Miller

======================
(15) AND FINALLY, PLANETARY DEFENSE LA WOODY ALLEN:
     GIANT BREAST CAN SAVE THE WORLD

From Christian Gritzner < Christian.Gritzner@cargolifter.com >

Hi Benny,

have a look at this :-)
Best wishes,
Christian

PROPOSED ASTEROID DEFENSE UTILIZES SILICON IMPLANTS

From Bogus News Network
http://www.acclaimedmedia.com/voafa/bnn/bestof/68b.htm

In the wake of last week's announcement that a nuclear warhead is not
capable of destroying an Earth-threatening asteroid, Sow Borning
Medical Industries, today, announced plans for an asteroid defense
system that would utilize silicon breast implants.

Said a spokesman for Sow Borning, "Sales of silicon breast implants have
been sagging since it was discovered they cause cancer. We have
hundreds of thousands of these things that we have been trying to get
rid of."

Sow Borning's plan is to take their present stock of silicon implants and
create a 'breast' the size of a house. The Space Shuttle would then
send it on a collision course with the asteroid. When they collide, the
asteroid would be 'bounced' into deep space away from the earth.

NASA scientists say they need some time to feel the idea out.

1999 BNN (Bogus News Network - The Nation's Second Leading Source
for Misinformation) http://www.bogusnews.com - You may Freely
Distribute this story for non-commercial use IF You Include All
Copyright Info, the Website Address and the Disclaimer.

Disclaimer: This story is totally false not one shred of it is true! It
was created for entertainment purposes ONLY. Any resemblance to the
truth is purely coincidental.

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