PLEASE NOTE:


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Date sent: Thu, 03 Jul 1997 13:27:15 -0400 (EDT)
From: Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk>
Subject: EVOLUTIONARY GRADUALISM
To: cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority: NORMAL

HOW VALID IS EVOLUTIONARY GRADUALISM?

D. R. Prothero & T. H. Heaton: Faunal stability during the Early
Oligocene climatic crash. In: PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY
PALAEOECOLOGY, 1996, Vol.127, No.1-4, pp.257-283

Traditional Neo-Darwinism views species as highly flexible entities
which adapt to climatic change by gradually evolving new morphologies.
Of the 177 species of mammals from the upper Eocene-lower Oligocene
(37-30 Ma) White River Group in the High Plains, most species are
static for 2.4 million years on average, and some persist much longer.
Only three examples of gradualism can be documented in the entire
fauna, and these are mostly size changes. Contrary to expectations,
most mammalian species show no change during the earliest Oligocene
climatic crash (33.2 Ma), in spite of the fact that the vegetation
changed from dense forests to open forested grassland, mean annual
temperatures dropped 13 degrees C, and conditions got much drier and
more seasonal. Only a few mammalian lineages speciated, a few more went
extinct, and the vast majority (62 out of 70) persisted through this
climatic event with no observable response whatsoever. This evidence
shows that organisms are much less responsive to the environment than
short-term neontological studies suggest.



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Date sent: Thu, 03 Jul 1997 13:13:32 -0400 (EDT)
From: Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk>
Subject: TUNGUSKA
To: cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority: NORMAL

GEOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL NATURE OF THE TUNGUSKA
EVENT

E.M. Kolesnikov, T. Bottger, A. Hiller, F. W. Junge, N. V. Kolesnikova:
Isotope anomalies of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in peat from
the area of the Tunguska cosmic body explosion (1908)
In: ISOTOPES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH STUDIES, 1996, Vol.32, No.4,
pp.347-361

Peat profiles from the area of the Tunguska explosion epicentre
indicate significant carbon and hydrogen isotopic effects which are
clearly associated with the zone of the 1908 'catastrophe', and which
cannot be attributed to any known terrestrial processes. We explain
them with the presence of extraterrestrial matter similar to
carbonaceous chondrites or, more probably, to cometary matter. Initial
data on nitrogen content and its isotope composition are consistent
with the assumption of acid rainfall following the passage and
explosion of the Tunguska cosmic body, as is known to have occurred
during the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.



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Date sent: Thu, 03 Jul 1997 13:07:38 -0400 (EDT)
From: Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk>
Subject: TRIGGER RECORS OF SEDIMENATRY EVENTS
To: cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority: NORMAL

READING OF THE TRIGGER RECORDS OF SEDIMENTARY EVENTS - A PROBLEM FOR
FUTURE STUDIES

So far, some 130 hypervelocity impact craters have been detected on
Earth, 90 of which have diametres of more the 5km (D < 5km). These
giant impacts should have left clear geological fingerprints in marine
and terrestrial sediments. However, only the much researched K/T
boundary impact has yielded unambiguous stratification in the
sedimentary record of Earth. Attempts to link other impact craters with
different mass extinctions and sedimentary layers are still
controversial. Even more difficult is the detection of abrupt
geomorphic and sedimentary changes caused by high level multimegaton
atmospheric or oceanic impacts. How, then, can geologists detect
sedimentary records for past impact events? The search for such
sedimentary evidence has only started quite recently. Prof Shiki, a
Japanese geologist, has raised the problems involved in this new
(re)seach in a recent paper.

Benny J Peiser
------------------------------------------------------------------------

T. Shiki: Reading of the Trigger Records of Sedimentary Events - A
Problem for Future Studies. In: SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY, 1996, Vol.104,
No.1-4, pp.249-255


Sedimentary records of various three- to four-dimensional patterns of
nature have recently attracted the special attention of many geologists.
The dramatic development of rhythmic sequence stratigraphy is a
conspicuous recent instance. The significance of event sedimentation in
geohistory, however, has not been examined sufficiently. The problem of
how to read the records of triggers or thresholds of sedimentary events
has been ignored. The difficulty of solving this problem concerns the
difference in patterns between natural sedimentary processes and their
resulting sediments. Terminological confusion of event deposits is
another cause which hinders our taking note of this problem. A few
examples of endeavours to discriminate the threshold of sedimentary
events are shown by the analysis of two kinds of turbidites of the
Mid-Guatemala Trench, the investigation of slump-derived turbidites of
the Suruga Trough, and the study of the seismoturbidites in Lake Biwa.
Well-focused investigations of features of trigger-known sediments is
the best strategy to find the criteria for discriminating the triggers
or thresholds based on sedimentary records of various sedimentary
events. From this point of view, more detailed studies of the Santorini
Eruption-induced homogenites, the K-T boundary impact-induced
tsunamiites, together with the Lake Biwa seismic turbidites, are very
important. Further efforts should be made to find and investigate as
many trigger-identifiable sediments as possible.



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Date sent: Thu, 03 Jul 1997 09:49:40 -0400 (EDT)
From: Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk>
Subject: Re: MEN BEHAVING BADLY ON THE NET
To: cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority: NORMAL

MEN BEHAVING BADLY ON THE NETWORK: DEALING WITH INFLAMMATORY COMMEMTS

I have been asked to clarify the policy of this e-mail network and
the means to deal with inflammatory or derogatory statements
circulated on the net. All new subscribers normally receive an
introductory message in which the general aims and policies of the
cc-net are outlined. I would, however, like to take this
opportunity to stress the rules of the game once again:

1.) The CC-network is an open forum to which members have
unrestricted access and to which they can contribute without any
interference. The network therefore relies on the goodness, mild
manners and civilised behaviour of its members. Experience tells
us that not all people find it easy to comply to such a restrained
form of communication. By using offensive or derogatory language,
some even might create (intentionally or unintentionally) an
atmosphere of tention and intimidation. As long as an e-mail
network is completely open and unrestricted, rules have to be
applied to prevent such an unpleasant atmosphere.

2.) The CC-list is NOT a regular e-mail discussion group. It's
main aim is to disseminate the latest information related to the
topics of the forthcoming Cambridge Conference and to keep
members up to date about related research, news items and further
announcements.

3.) The network is restricted to researchers and genuinely
interested lay people interested in the multidisciplinary subjects
of the Cambridge Conference. Only relevant information should be
posted on the net. Personal comments should always be addressed to
individual members rather than to the entire list.

4.) Members who circulate offensive, derogatory or inflammatory
comments will be cautioned. If they fail to comply to this
"no-offense" policy, they might have to be removed from the
network for good.

5.) This network was set-up in order to keep conference delegates
and list members up to date in the run-up to the Cambridge
Conference. Once the conference has taken place, members will be
asked whether or not they wish to see a continuation of this
network.


Can I kindly ask members to address all comments related to this
message to me rather than to the entire list. I will make sure
that individual comments and suggestions will be circulated
the week after the Cambridge conference in order to discuss the
possible termination (or continuation) of this network.

With best wishes

Benny J Peiser



CCCMENU CCC for 1997

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