PLEASE NOTE:


*

CCNet, 075/2000 - 14 July 2000
-------------------------------


     "A new member of the family of asteroids that can pass close to
     the Earth has been discovered. The space rock was found by
     accident on 2 July by astronomer Leonard Amburgey of Fitchburg,
     Massachusetts. He typed in the wrong celestial co-ordinates into
     his computer-controlled telescope and stumbled across the 3-km
     (1.8 miles) sized object. The asteroid has been given the    
     temporary designation 2000 NM by the Minor Planet Center in     
     Cambridge, Massachusetts. It poses no threat to Earth. [...]
     However, they are concerned that it was found by accident and was
     missed by the half dozen professional minor-planet surveys
     currently in operation."
        -- David Whitehouse, BBC



(1) EARTH-APPROACHING ASTEROID FOUND BY ACCIDENT
    Christian Gritzner <gritzner@eurospace.de>

(2) METEOR IMPACT JARS SLEEPY AUSTRLIAN TOWN
    Ron Baalke <baalke@jpl.nasa.gov>

(3) BAD NEWS FOR BRITAIN’S NEO TASK FORCE: UK IS FALLING
    BEHIND IN SPACE SCIENCE & EXPLORATION
    BBC Online News, 13 July 2000

(4) CHEMISTS FIND EXTRATERRESTRIAL 'ANOMALY' IN EARTH'S ROCKS
    Andrew Yee <ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca>

(5) NOVEL EXPERIMENT HELPS EXPLAIN CHARGED DUST IN THE
    VACUUM OF SPACE
    Ron Baalke <baalke@zagami.jpl.nasa.gov>

(6) METEOROIDS 2001 CONFERENCE
    Robert Hawkes <rhawkes@mta.ca>

(7) SENIOR THESIS ON IMPACT HAZARD
    Leorah Walsh <walshlg@cchat.com>

(8) THE TORINO SCALE DEBATE GOES ON:
    ‘KEEP SCIENTIFIC CRITICISM OUT OF PUBLIC EYE!’
    Andy Nimmo <andy-nimmo@ntlworld.com>

(9) SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY SHOULD PRESENT UNIFIED IMAGE
    Richard A. Kowalski <bitnik@bitnik.com>

(10) FOR ACCURATE TORINO SCALE INFORMATION, GO TO THE SOURCE
     Richard P. Binzel <rpb@mit.edu>

(11) BOOKS & EXCERPTS
     Bob Kobres <bkobres@uga.edu>


=============
(1) EARTH-APPROACHING ASTEROID FOUND BY ACCIDENT

From Christian Gritzner <gritzner@eurospace.de>

Hi Benny,

I just found that in the news:

Earth-approaching space rock found by accident
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_827000/827010.stm

Best wishes,
Christian

EARTH-APPROACHING SPACE ROCK FOUND BY ACCIDENT
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_827000/827010.stm

BBC Online News, July 10, 2000

By Dr David Whitehouse

A new member of the family of asteroids that can pass close to the
Earth has been discovered. The space rock was found by accident on 2
July by astronomer Leonard Amburgey of Fitchburg, Massachusetts.

He typed in the wrong celestial co-ordinates into his
computer-controlled telescope and stumbled across the 3-km (1.8 miles) 
sized object.

The asteroid has been given the temporary designation 2000 NM by the
Minor Planet Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It poses no threat to
Earth. Astronomers say this is the brightest near-Earth asteroid to be
discovered in the past year.

Professional miss

However, they are concerned that it was found by accident and was
missed by the half dozen professional minor-planet surveys currently in
operation.

At the moment, it is about 22 million km (13 million miles) from Earth.
It crosses inside the Earth's orbit at the end of July, on its way to
its closest approach to the Sun in late August.

Since the asteroid's discovery, a variety of telescopes from around the
world have been collecting data on it.

Astronomers hope that by looking for variations in its brightness they
may get some idea of how fast the space rock is spinning.

An accurate estimation of its orbit would also help them determine if
it is likely to pass close to the Earth in the future. A collision,
however, has been ruled out.

Copyright 2000, BBC

========
(2) METEOR IMPACT JARS SLEEPY AUSTRLIAN TOWN

From Ron Baalke <baalke@jpl.nasa.gov>

Meteor Impact Jars Sleepy Australian Town
By Stewart Taggart
space.com
10 July 2000

GUYRA, Australia -- Until late last year, this sleepy hamlet about 250
miles (400 kilometers) north of Sydney was itself a bit like outer
space -- largely unvisited.

But then, on December 7, a cricket-ball sized meteorite slammed into
the town water supply. Ever since, local officials have been trying to
make the most of their windfall or -- more accurately -- space-fall.

Last week, a local businessman pledged $3,000 to dredge the rock out of
the reservoir's mud bottom so it could either be put on display, given
to a local university or donated to the Australian Museum in Sydney.

Full story here:

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/planetearth/meteorite_town_000706.html

================
(3) BAD NEWS FOR BRITAIN’S NEO TASK FORCE: UK IS FALLING BEHIND
    IN SPACE SCIENCE & EXPLORATION

From the BBC Online News, 13 July 2000
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_831000/831401.stm

UK 'slacking in space race'

The UK risks being left behind in the commercial space race because of
a lack of government ambition and the declining quality of science
graduates, an all-party committee of MPs has warned.

A space strategy document published by the government last year has
been described as "limited in ambition", in a report by the House of
Commons Trade and Industry Select Committee.

The committee warns that UK spending on the commercial development of
space is falling in real terms, and it says that political interest
should be matched by vision and funds.

Around 200 million is spent annually by the government on space.

The committee's report calls for the government's next space strategy
"to announce something beyond a modest continuation of existing
programmes".

It also expresses the hope "that the civil space programme will be
funded on a less cautious basis".

MPs found signs that the quality of engineering graduates from UK
universities had declined noticeably over the last five years.

Earth observation

The report concludes that "fresh blood" will be needed to supply the
space industry in the next few years and the committee wants the
government to encourage young people to take an interest in space.

It says: "Any decline in the number and calibre of science and
technology graduates raises problems far beyond those of the space
industry alone. "A small industry such as space is particularly
vulnerable.

"The next UK space strategy must explicitly address the question of the
supply of appropriately qualified graduates so that the space industry
can be sustained in the years ahead."

The report also criticises the UK's role in a new global navigation
satellite system for a "lack of leadership" and the failure of
government policy to create a commercially sustainable Earth
observation industry.

MPs want a review of the "role, status and organisation" of the British
National Space Centre, which is responsible for space policy.

The commercial development of space has grown rapidly in recent years
with telecommunications, media and navigation companies all using
satellites. The UK space industry involves around 400 companies and
employs around 6,300 people.

Copyright 2000, BBC

================
(4) CHEMISTS FIND EXTRATERRESTRIAL 'ANOMALY' IN EARTH'S ROCKS

From Andrew Yee <ayee@nova.astro.utoronto.ca>

University of California-San Diego

Media Contact:
Kim McDonald, kimmcdonald@ucsd.edu, (858) 534-7572

JULY 12, 2000

UCSD CHEMISTS FIND EXTRATERRESTRIAL 'ANOMALY' IN EARTH'S ROCKS

Chemists at the University of California, San Diego have discovered an
isotope anomaly previously thought unique to meteorites and other
extraterrestrial rocks in sulfate minerals on Earth.

The surprising finding, detailed in the July 13 issue of Nature
concludes a decade-long search in terrestrial rocks and sediments for
this "anomalous" oxygen-isotope signature. Such signatures had been
detected before in gases on Earth. But the inability before now to
detect this anomaly in terrestrial solids had forced scientists to
conclude that it was unique to extraterrestrial sources and an
exclusive byproduct of nucleosynthesis in stars.

Its discovery in terrestrial rocks in a form that showed it could be
produced on Earth not only alters ideas among planetary scientists
about the source of this anomaly. It will now give earth scientists and
atmospheric chemists an important new probe to answer questions about
the composition of Earth's early atmosphere, the atmospheric processes
of ancient volcanic eruptions, past ocean circulation patterns and early
biological productivity.

"It will enable us to understand more about the history of the Earth and
possibly climate on time scales that were out of reach before," says
Mark H. Thiemens, a professor of chemistry and dean of UCSD's Division
of Physical Sciences who headed the research effort.

"It opens up this whole new area for geochemists to look at things like
ancient atmospheric deposits," says Huiming Bao, a geochemist at UCSD
and the first author of the paper. "Once we figure out the fundamental
sulfur-oxidation processes occurring in the atmosphere, it will provide
a good way to understand ancient atmospheric processes."

Bao initially discovered the "anomalous" signatures -- something odd
about variations of the three stable isotopes of oxygen -- in gypsum
deposits from the Namibian desert and in volcanic ash deposits in
Nebraska and South Dakota. Also contributing to the discovery and
analysis were UCSD chemists Thiemens, James Farquhar, Douglas A.
Campbell and Charles Chi-Woo Lee; Klaus Heine of the University of
Regensburg in Germany; and David B. Loope of the University of Nebraska.
The study was financed by the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration and the National Science Foundation.

The scientists knew the anomalous isotope signatures were terrestrial
because they were recorded in sulfate (SO4 2-) minerals that had been
deposited in volcanic ash beds 20 million years ago or, in the case of
Namibian gypsum deposits, associated with sulfur-producing marine
organisms that emitted dimethyl sulfide into the atmosphere during the
past 10 million years.

"We believe that ultimately these anomalous signatures come from the
Earth's atmosphere," says Bao. "And these signatures get transferred
from ozone and other atmospheric oxidants to sulfate during the
oxidation of reduced sulfur gases, such as those emitted by marine
microorganisms or from volcanic eruptions."

With the exception of the isotopic signatures of gases trapped in ice
cores for the past 200,000 years, scientists have had little knowledge
of how major components in the Earth's ancient atmosphere -- such as
sulfur, carbon, and oxygen -- cycled through the oceans and terrestrial
rocks. The UCSD development is important because it now provides a
window into some of these processes extending millions or billions of
years into the Earth's past.

"To understand how the surface of the planet works, you'd really like to
understand how this cycle couples to the atmosphere," says Thiemens.
"No one has been able to find a way to do it on Earth except through ice
cores. Now we can go far back in time and that's never been done before."

The UCSD researchers believe the signatures in the volcanic ash could
provide geologists with additional information about the chemistry of
volcanic plumes and the nature of the eruptions that produced them.
"Characteristic signatures may also help to temporally correlate
continental deposits among different basins, where such a correlation
has been a challenging task," says Bao.

Because the coast off central Namibia is a major zone of upwelling
with intense biological activity, the researchers were able to tie the
anomalous sulfate deposits to the activity of nearby sulfur-producing
marine microorganisms and the unique desert environment that is able
to preserve the signature. However, the upwelling current may not have
been constant during the past several millions of years and may be
intimately tied to the change of ancient climatic conditions. "It is too
early to tell," says Bao, "but if this connection can be made, we may
have a way of gaining insight into past ocean circulation and biological
productivity."

The UCSD discovery also suggests that planetary geologists need to
be careful in interpreting the origin of oxygen-isotope anomalies on
meteorites, since these signatures can occur in terrestrial as well as
extraterrestrial rocks. "Our observations suggest that caution needs to
be exercised when looking for these anomalies in meteorites, because
some of them may have been imparted during their residence on Earth,"
says Bao. "Some meteorites lay on ice or in the desert for thousands of
years, so the secondary minerals in these meteorites may have originated
on Earth."

IMAGE CAPTION: [http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/graphics/images/namib.jpg]
Fog over the Namibian desert. Credit: NASA

=================
(5) NOVEL EXPERIMENT HELPS EXPLAIN CHARGED DUST IN THE
    VACUUM OF SPACE

From Ron Baalke <baalke@zagami.jpl.nasa.gov>

Office of News Services
University of Colorado-Boulder
354 Willard Administrative Center
Campus Box 9
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0009
(303) 492-6431

CONTACT:
Amanda Sickafoose, (303) 492-1628
amanda.sickafoose@Colorado.EDU

Scott Robertson, (303) 492-6453
robertso@stripe.colorado.edu

Jim Scott, (303) 492-3114
jim.scott@colorado.edu

July 12, 2000

NOVEL CU EXPERIMENT HELPS EXPLAIN CHARGED DUST IN THE VACUUM OF SPACE

A small layer of dust suspended several feet above the moon's surface
that was first photographed by the Lunar Surveyor spacecraft in the
1960s and later observed by Apollo astronauts has been a puzzle to some
planetary scientists.

But a University of Colorado at Boulder research team is on the verge
of explaining the odd dust phenomenon, which also may occur on
asteroids, the rings of planets and even around spacecraft.

The new results can help explain dust transport on the surface of the
moon, said CU-Boulder doctoral student and experiment team member
Amanda Sickafoose. The research also may help scientists mitigate
problems related to the contamination of spacecraft, scientific
instruments and space suits by dust as NASA contemplates future
missions to the moon and Mars.

Researchers have assumed the lunar dust levitation is caused by
ultraviolet photons from the sun ejecting electrons from isolated
grains of dust, giving each a positive charge. The same radiation also
is thought to be knocking electrons off the moon's surface rocks,
causing the electrons to bounce upward and negatively charge dust
grains near the surface, said CU-Boulder physics Professor Scott
Robertson.

The end result is thought to be that negatively charged dust particles
fall back to the surface while a small belt of positively charged
particles float several feet above the surface. The positively charged
particles are thought to be held in place in a layer less than a foot
across by gravitational forces pulling the particles toward the moon's
surface and the repelling force of the positively charged moon.

The team from CU-Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
designed an experiment to confirm the first step of the theory that
included dropping individual, pepper grain-sized particles of zinc,
copper and graphite through an evacuated chamber illuminated by UV
light from an arc lamp. The grains fell about a foot into a device
known as a Faraday cup, which directly measured the electrical charge
of each grain.

Each dust particle received roughly the amount of positive charge the
research team expected, said Robertson. In a follow-up experiment, a
zirconium plate was placed near the falling grains to simulate the
effect of moon rocks emitting photoelectrons. That experiment produced
negatively charged dust particles, as expected, said Sickafoose.

A paper on the subject was published in the June 26 issue of Physical
Review Letters. The paper was authored by Sickafoose and LASP Research
Associates Joshua Colwell, Mihaly Horanyi and Robertson.

"The original theory seemed to satisfy most planetary scientists when
it was proposed some time ago," said Robertson, also a research
associate at CU-Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.
"But no one seems to have bothered to do a rigorous experimental
check."

The LASP team's final goal is to simulate the effect of floating dust
by levitating particles over a substrate simulating the moon's surface
in the laboratory, said Sickafoose, who is pursuing a doctorate in the
astrophysical and planetary sciences department.

"By understanding how and why these dust particles charge, scientists
can find ways to better protect telescope lenses, spacecraft
instruments and astronauts from the negative effects of charged space
dust," she said.

The experiments were devised after CU researchers modified an apparatus
originally assembled at CU-Boulder by University of Northern Colorado
faculty member Bob Walch several years ago. "CU-Boulder is one of the few
places in the country that has the equipment necessary to carry out these
type of experiments," said Sickafoose.

==================
(6) METEOROIDS 2001 CONFERENCE

From Robert Hawkes <rhawkes@mta.ca>

Meteoroids 2001 conference at the Swedish Institute of Space
Physics, Kiruna, Sweden, August 6-10, 2001

This conference will be the fourth in a series of meteoroid
meetings which have been held every few years since 1993, the last
being in Tatranska Lomnica in 1998. It will accommodate a broad
range of meteoroid research: dynamics, sources and distribution of
these bodies, the physics and chemistry of their interaction
process with the atmosphere as well as the space weather aspects
in the form of their hypervelocity impact threat to spacecraft.
craft.

TOPICS

The following scientific areas are proposed to be covered by this
meeting:

* Historical observations and perspectives on meteoroids

* Dynamics, sources and spatial distribution of meteoroids

* Meteoroids from interstellar space: detections, mass
  distributions, source regions, characteristics

* Physics and chemistry of meteoroid interaction process in the
  atmosphere

* Impacts of meteoric constituents on atmospheric phenomena

* Hypervelocity impact effects on spacecraft

* Leonids - meteor storms and their short-term environmental effects

* Optical observations of meteors

* Meteor radar observations

* Large-aperture radar observations of meteors

* In-situ measurements of meteoroids

Local Organisation Committee Contact:
Asta Pellinen-Wannberg
asta.pellinen-wannberg@irf.se

Additional information on the conference is available on the www at:

http://www.irf.se/Meteoroids2001/

-------
This notice is distributed by the International Astronomical Union Comm.
22 (Meteors and Interplanetary Dust).
Bob Hawkes (Secretary)  rhawkes@mta.ca

============================
* LETTERS TO THE MODERATOR *
============================

(7) SENIOR THESIS ON IMPACT HAZARD

From Leorah Walsh <walshlg@cchat.com>

Hi, my name is Leorah and I am a senior at the academic magnet high
school in South Carolina. My school requires the completion of a senior
thesis similar to a large science fair project or a small PhD.  My topic
concerns asteroids and potential impact and I need some information.
I've already performed  a basic review of literature that covers the
basic astronomical origins of asteroids, comets, and their types.  It
also covers PHA's, NEO's, the torino scale, early impacts (possible
causes of the formation of the moon and affects on early life,
extraterrestrial life), affects of land impacts of large and small
asteroids, impact cratering, ocean impacts, and a brief overview of
asteroid removal.

My advisor said the next thing I need to do is look at models and
proposals for asteroid impact and elimination.  For example, with the
solar sail, I need to find out how the sail would be developed,
launched, unfolded, deployed, and how its effectiveness would be
tested. I was wondering if you had this information (or any ideas of
your own for moving/destroying a PHA that could be used to help me out
here. I also plan on doing simulations and using some of my own ideas
to move the asteroid and plan on simulating an impact in a scaled down
model (of course, the air resistance would have an effect) and
comparing it to existing hypothesis for the results of asteroid
impacts.  From here, I would compare the political and economic
necessities for deploying an asteroid removing device and talk to FEMA
about what they would do in event of a possible impact. I will finally
create my own proposal for the removal of a PHA from the information
gathered.

Is there any part in these next steps that you can help with or anyone
you know who can possibly be of aid to me?

Thanks

Leorah Walsh

==========
(8) THE TORINO SCALE CONTROVERSY GOES ON:
    'KEEP SCIENTIFIC CRITICISM OUT OF PUBLIC EYE!'

From Andy Nimmo <andy-nimmo@ntlworld.com>

Dear Dr Peiser,

As chairman of the new UK space group, the Space Development Council,
an amalgam of 8 groups for the purpose of co-ordinating UK pro-space
lobbying, I feel I must jump to the defence of Jay Tate's plea for a
more general use of the Torino Scale as far as astro-hazards are
concerned. Jay is not calling for an end to scientific criticism of the
Scale, nor for no further modification of it. What he is calling for is
for more general use of the Scale unless or until a better scheme
becomes available.

It certainly would be a great help to those of us trying to deal with
politicians, journalists etc., if public pronouncements were kept as
simple and straightforward as possible. Let us keep the scientific
disagreements within the scientific community - whereby new and better
scales can be developed, but at the same time, keep as uniform a
position as possible in public, and thereby avoid unnecessary confusion
in the public mind.

All such confusion does is cause delays in granting funds for further
scientific investigations, and in politicians decisions as to what, if
anything, to do to find out more or prevent potentially hazardous
events.

Yours sincerely,

Andy Nimmo (Chairman, The Space Development Council).

=================
(9) SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY SHOULD PRESENT UNIFIED IMAGE

From Richard A. Kowalski <bitnik@bitnik.com>

Benny and Jonathan,

My main concern with the public's perception with the NEO and minor
planet community is not that we can't use a common "scale" to describe
any possible danger from an impactor, but that we continue to air our
"dirty laundry" about the politics of our community.

I agree that the Torino Scale should not be treated like a dogma or
party manifesto, but this "little war" we are having is politics, pure
and simple and that is a shame.

Jonathan asks why there has been no alternative to the Torino Scale as 
we approach it's one year anniversary? In you response on CCNet, you do
not provide an alternate or direct your readers to any existing
alternatives.

As someone who has made some small effort to educate the local public 
on things astronomical, even with only a limited scope, I was a bit 
disappointed at how complex the Torino Scale was for me to use to 
explain the collision threat to those who contact me. I have found that
professional scientists often "over analyze" rather simple things or do
not explain couple things simply for the general public. I would say
the unabridged Torino Scale meets this criteria. However, that does not
mean I would junk it, but instead I use it as the basis for my
discussions.

Two simplifications of the scale that immediately come to mind all 
involve three major levels of alert, which match Binzel's scale. Green,
Yellow and Red or even the text "Don't worry about it", "Pay Attention"
and finally "Kiss your ass good-bye". The second one is of course,
tongue in cheek, but shows that one can taylor the discussion for your
audience.

I do agree with Jonathan that we do need to present a more unified 
image of what we as NEO researchers are doing and what we are finding.

It's sad when I read a local newspaper article about a potential 
impactor (which was based on a post from MPML or CCNet) and the 
majority of the article focuses on our communities inability to deal
with our own problems internally instead of NEOs and our efforts to 
find them.

It is time to accept the Torino Scale since none of it's critics have
come up with a working alternative.
--
Richard Kowalski
Minor Planet Mailing List

==================
(10) FOR ACCURATE TORINO SCALE INFORMATION, GO TO THE SOURCE

From Richard P. Binzel <rpb@mit.edu>

Readers who are interested in an accurate depiction of the intended
application of the Torino Scale are referred to its formal publication
in the professional refereed literature:

   Binzel, R. P. (2000).
   "The Torino Impact Hazard Scale."
   Planetary and Space Science 48, 297-303.

I will be pleased to supply a reprint to any interested reader who
communicates a postal address to rpb@mit.edu.

The following text is taken from the final paragraph of the published paper:

"The establishment of the Torino Scale as a tool and common lexicon for
public communication and assessment of NEO close encounter predictions
helps to fulfill the responsibility of astronomers to provide clear and
consistent public information on celestial impact hazards. When coupled
with a close encounter date that conveys the relative urgency, the
single most important aspect of the Torino Scale is that it provides an
immediate sense of context for the potential hazard of the encounter by
reporting a value on a 10 point scale. Additional color coding and
descriptive wording allow a higher level understanding of the context
for any scale value. The Torino Scale has natural limitations that
arise from it being a one-dimensional translation of a
multi-dimensional problem. Therefore responsible public communication
that announces the dates of close encounter events that represent
serious potential threats, requires significantly more hazard context
information than just a Torino Scale value. Similarly, astronomers have
a responsibility to monitor and refine orbits for all objects that can
make future close approaches. Professional interest and professional
communication toward this task is by no means intended to be limited by
the establishment of the Torino Scale." (c) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. 
All rights reserved.

-------------------
MODERATOR’S NOTE:

Readers interested in the scientific criticism of the Torino Scale
which has been published so far, can find the objections and
suggestions for revision at the following web sites:

Michael Paine: TORINO SCALE MIGHT LOSE CREDIBILITY IF NOT REFINED
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc072399.html

Jens Kieffer-Olsen: HAZARD SCALE SHOULD ALSO ACCOUNT FOR LEAD TIME BEFORE IMPACT
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc082399.html

Robert Roy Britt: TORINO SCALE: DISASTER YARDSTICK IN SEARCH OF A ROLE
http://explorezone.com/archives/99_11/04_torino_scale.htm

Brian Marsden: POSSIBLE REMEDIES FOR THE TORINO SCALE
http://explorezone.com/archives/99_11/10_marsden_comment.htm

Joaquin Perez: TORINO SCALE IS FLAWED
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc042600.html

Jay Tate: THE TORINO SCALE - A WORKING ALTERNATIVE
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/ce050200.html

Alain Maury: MORE SCALES, OR WHY I WILL NEVER USE THE TORINO SCALE
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/cc050800.html

============
(11) BOOKS & EXCERPTS

From Bob Kobres <bkobres@uga.edu>

Hi Benny,

I've added a few more books and excerpts in the DjVu format. In
particular readers might find some of the descriptions found in the 
text of the Mahabharata interesting.  Most of these files are less than
100k each and can be enlarged to 999% so they are quite easy to read on
screen--even without reading glasses! 8^)

Later.
bobk

----------------------------------------------------------------------
text of the Mahabharata index:
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/maha/tovmahab.html
a good example:
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/maha/mahab077.djv
DjVued book links:
----------------------------------------------------------------------

David Milne's academic prize winning Essay on Comets, published by the
University of Edinburgh in 1828:
Essay on Comets.
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/eoc/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
The earliest known symbol, and its migration; with observations on the
migration of certain industries in prehistoric times. By Thomas Wilson,
(1894) Curator, Department of Prehistoric Anthropology, U.S. National
Museum.
The Swastika.
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/sw/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Sibylline Oracles (Books III-V) as translated by H. N. Bate (1918):
The Sibylline
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/sib/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
A history of the Dragon in China and Japan, by M. W. de Visser (1913):
The Dragon in China and Japan
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/dcj/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ilios: City and Country of the Trojans, by Henry Schiliemann (1881):
Ilios.
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/troy/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
A discussion of the historicity of the Mahabharata, edited by S.P.
Gupta and K.S. Ramachandran (1976):
Mahabharata: Myth and Reality, Differing Views..
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/maha/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
An early (1882) discussion, by Ignatius Donnelly, of the possibility of
Earth being hit by a comet:
Ragnarok: The age of fire and gravel..
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/rag/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
The Channeled Scabland: A Guide to the Geomorphology of the Columbia
Basin, Washington, by Victor R. Baker & Dag Nummedal, NASA (1978):
The Channeled Scabland..
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/chsl/

----------------------------------------------------------------------
The above are linked to from:
http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/rmenu.html

Bob Kobres

----------------------------------------
THE CAMBRIDGE-CONFERENCE NETWORK (CCNet)
----------------------------------------
The CCNet is a scholarly electronic network. To subscribe/unsubscribe,
please contact the moderator Benny J Peiser <b.j.peiser@livjm.ac.uk>.
Information circulated on this network is for scholarly and
educational use only. The attached information may not be copied or
reproduced for any other purposes without prior permission of the
copyright holders. The fully indexed archive of the CCNet, from
February 1997 on, can be found at http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/cccmenu.html



CCCMENU CCC for 2000

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The content and opinions expressed on this Web page do not necessarily reflect the views of nor are they endorsed by the University of Georgia or the University System of Georgia.