PLEASE NOTE:


*
Date sent:        Mon, 03 Nov 1997 09:49:33 -0500 (EST)
From:             Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk
Subject:          Re: WHAT DO YOU DO WITH A NEWLY DISCOVERED IMPACT CRATER?
To:               cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority:         NORMAL

WHAT DO YOU DO WITH A NEWLY DISCOVERED IMPACT CRATER?

From: Richard Wade <richwde@iafrica.com

I have found what appears to be a meteorite impact crater - I have
done preliminary examinations and photographed it from a plane. The
meteoritic shards seem strange and I could do with some help in
assessing the event. Who do I report this to. I live in South Africa.
The crater is approx 10km in diameter.
 



*
Date sent:        Mon, 03 Nov 1997 09:38:20 -0500 (EST)
From:             Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk
Subject:          CC-DIGEST, 3/11/97
To:               cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority:         NORMAL

CAMBRIDGE-CONFERENCE DIGEST, 3 November 1997

(1) NEO-CATASTROPHISM AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION: A NEW PARADIGM OF CULTURAL
    ANTHROPOLOGY?

(2) NEW COMETS GALORE: SUNGRAZING COMETS DISCOVERED BY SOHO-LASCO

(3) PLANET URANUS HAS TWO MORE MOONS, CORNELL AND CANADIAN
    ASTRONOMERS FIND

(4) DISCOVERY OF TWO POSSIBLE SATELLITES OF URANUS

======================================================================= (1)
NEO-CATASTROPHISM AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION: A NEW PARADIGM OF
    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY?

96th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
19 - 23 November 1997, Washington, DC, Hilton

Benny J Peiser (Liverpool John Moores University): NEO-CATASTROPHISM
AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION: A NEW PARADIGM OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY?

Ever since the establishment of Darwinism in the late nineteenth
century, all fields of anthropology have adopted gradual evolutionism
as the theoretical foundation of the study of human and social
development. For more than 100 years, this paradigm has dominated
anthropological research. During the last twenty years, however, new
scientific evidence has challenged this long-held assumption. New
findings in astronomical and geological research suggest that
cometary debris repeatedly encounter the Earth. Such bodies,
depending on their physical properties and hence their cohesive
strength, can have catastrophic effects on the ecological system in a
variety of ways. In recent years, leading astronomers have argued
that both the emergence and collapse of human cultures, e.g. the end
of the Ice Age, the Neolithic Revolution and the collapse of various
Bronze Age civilisations, might be associated with episodes of
increased meteoric activity. In addition, a growing number of
scholars have started to investigate the implications of catastrophic
events on societal evolution, human social behaviour and the
development of religion. In this paper, I will critically discuss the
hypothesis by eminent astronomers such as Victor Clube, Bill Napier,
Mark Bailey, Sir Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe, Duncan Steel and
Gerrit Verschuur that a more ‘active’ sky in prehistoric times
punctuated the course of societal evolution. I will also deliberate
the implications of this new paradigm for next century’s cultural
anthropology.

====================================================================

(2) NEW COMETS GALORE: SUNGRAZING COMETS DISCOVERED BY SOHO-LASCO

From: Gerrit Verschuur <GLVERSCHUUR@memphis.edu

Benny

I was amazed to discover how many sungrazing comets have been
discovered by SOHO. These were never seen visually but picked up
close to the sun by the satellite.

If someone were to do the statistics I bet there are a lot more that
neither ground based or satellite telescopes detect.

Best wishes, Gerrit Verschuur

----------------------------------------------------------------

From: IN%"cst@sdac.nascom.nasa.gov"  1-NOV-1997 14:49:17.88
To: IN%"GLVERSCHUUR@memphis.edu"
Subj: SOHO LASCO Comet list

SOHO LASCO Comet Observations revised 28-October-1997 -- CSt
LASCO sungrazing comet web site:  www.sr.bham.ac.uk/~dab/

=======================================================
New Kreutz (Sungrazing) Comets Discovered by SOHO-LASCO
=======================================================

Comet SOHO-1 (20-Aug to 22-Aug-1996; S. Stezelberger;
  IAUC 6653; C/1996 Q2)

Comet SOHO-2 (30-Aug-1996; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6653
  C/1996 Q3)

Comet SOHO-3 (22-Sep to 23-Sep-1996; D. Biesecker;
  IAUC 6653; C/1996 S3)

Comet SOHO-4 (12-Dec-1996; S. Stezelberger; IAUC 6669;
  MPEC K12; C/1997 X2)

Comet SOHO-5 (11-Dec-1996; D. Lewis & D. Biesecker; IAUC 6669;
  MPEC K11; C/1997 X1)

Comet SOHO-6 (22-Dec to 23-Dec-1996; S. Stezelberger; IAUC 6653;
  C/1996 Y1; SOHO-UVCS data also)

Comet SOHO-7 (26-Jan-1997; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6669; MPEC K13; C/1997 B2)

Comet SOHO-9 (27-Jan to 28-Jan-1996; D. Biesecker automated search;
  IAUC 6669; MPEC K10; C/1996 B3)

Comet SOHO-10 (31-May to 01-Jun-1997; O.C. St.Cyr; IAUC 6676;
  MPEC L02; C/1997 K1)

Comet SOHO-12 (12-13 June 1997; S. Stezelberger; IAUC 6685;
  MPEC 1997-M07; C/1997 L3)

Comet SOHO-13 (14-15 June 1997; D. Lewis; IAUC 6685; MPEC 1997-M08;
  C/1997 L4)

Comet SOHO-14 (18 Feb 1996; B. McCarty using D. Biesecker automated search;
  IAUC 6688; MPEC 1997-M10; C/1996 D1)

Comet SOHO-15 (29-30 June 1997; O.C. St.Cyr; IAUC 6692;
  MPEC 1997-N04; C/1997 M1)

Comet SOHO-16 (23-25 Mar 1996; D. Biesecker & B. McCarty; IAUC 6693;
  MPEC 1997-N05; C/1996 F2)

Comet SOHO-17 (29-30 Apr 1996; B. McCarty & D. Biesecker; IAUC 6701;
  MPEC 1997-005; C/1996 H1)

Comet SOHO-18 (17-18 June 1996; D. Biesecker & B. McCarty using
  automated search; IAUC 6713; MPEC 1997-P05; C/1996 M1)

Comet SOHO-19 (03-05 August 1997; S. Stezelberger; IAUC 6713;
  MPEC 1997-P04; C/1997 P1)

Comet SOHO-20 (25-26 June 1996; B. McCarty; IAUC 6715;
  MPEC 1997-P05; C/1996 M2)

Comet SOHO-21 (21 July 1996; D. Biesecker & B. McCarty; IAUC 6727;
  MPEC 1997-Q03; C/1996 O1)

Comet SOHO-22 (23-24 July 1996; B. McCarty & D. Biesecker; IAUC 6727;
  MPEC 1997-Q04; C/1996 O2)

Comet SOHO-23 (27 July 1996; D. Biesecker & B. McCarty; IAUC 6727;
  MPEC 1997-Q06; C/1996 O4)

Comet SOHO-24 (25 July 1996; B. McCarty & D. Biesecker; IAUC 6727;
  MPEC 1997-Q05; C/1996 O3)

Comet SOHO-25 (22-24 August 1997; K. Schenk; IAUC 6733;
  MPEC 1997-R03; C/1997 Q2)

Comet SOHO-26 (31 August 1997; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6733;
  MPEC 1997-R04; C/1997 Q1)

Comet SOHO-27 (08 September 1997; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6745;
  MPEC 1997-S05; C/1997 R1)

Comet SOHO-28 (14-15 September 1997; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6745;
  MPEC 1997-S06; C/1997 R2)

Comet SOHO-29 (15-16 September 1997; S. Stezelberger; IAUC 6745;
  MPEC 1997-S07; C/1997 R3)

Comet SOHO-30 (29-30 September 1997; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6750;
  MPEC 1997-T01; C/1997 S1)

Comet SOHO-31 (03 October 1997; D. Lewis; IAUC 6754;
  MPEC 1997-T05; C/1997 T2)

Comet SOHO-32 (06 October 1997; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6759;
  MPEC 1997-U06; C1997 T4)

Comet SOHO-32 (07 October 1997; D. Biesecker; IAUC 6759;
  MPEC 1997-U07; C1997 T5)

=========================================
Other New Comets Discovered by SOHO-LASCO
=========================================

Comet SOHO-8 (29-Apr to 04-May-1997; S. Stezelberger; IAUC 6650;
  C/1997 H2; SOHO-UVCS and SOHO-SWAN data also)

Comet SOHO-11 (10-11 Jun 1997; S. Stezelberger; IAUC 6684;
  C/1997 L2)

===================================
Known Comets Observed by SOHO-LASCO
===================================

Comet Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova (09-Jan to 18-Jan-1996)
Comet Hyakutake (29-April to 06-May-1996)
Comet 96P/Machholz 1 (13-Oct to 16-Oct-1996; IAUC 6669)

===================================================================

(3) PLANET URANUS HAS TWO MORE MOONS, CORNELL AND CANADIAN
ASTRONOMERS FIND

From: Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov

News Service
Cornell University

Planet Uranus has two more moons, Cornell and Canadian astronomers
find

'Irregular' satellites S/1997 U1 and S/1997 U2 discovered with Mount
Palomar's 5-meter Hale telescope

FOR RELEASE: Oct. 31, 1997

Contact: Roger Segelken
Office: (607) 255-9736
E-Mail: hrs2@cornell.edu

"Discovery image" made Sept. 6, 1997, at the Palomar Observatory by
Philip Nicholson, Joseph Burns, Brett Gladman and J.J. Kavelaars. The
brighter of the two "new" moons of Uranus, S/1997 U2, is circled in
the upper right portion of the frame. S/1997 U1 does not appear in
this image. The bright light in the lower left is from the planet,
which is out of the frame. The spikes extending from some stars are
artifacts of the CCD electronic imaging process. To view a larger
version of this photo, click here.

[ http://www.news.cornell.edu/photos/U2.jpg (126K)]

ITHACA, N.Y. -- Astronomers using the 5-meter Hale telescope on
California's Mount Palomar report the discovery of two "new" moons
orbiting the planet Uranus.

The objects -- first observed Sept. 6 and 7 by Philip Nicholson and
Joseph Burns of Cornell University, Brett Gladman of the University
of Toronto and J.J. Kavelaars of McMaster University, and
photographed again by the astronomers in late October -- bring to 17
the number of satellites known to orbit Uranus. After subsequent
observations by telescopes in Hawaii and New Mexico, the discovery
was confirmed today (Oct. 31) by Brian Marsden of the Central Bureau
for Astronomical Telegrams at the Smithsonian Astrophysical
Observatory. At the time of discovery, the fainter object was located
approximately 6 arc-minutes east of the planet, and the brighter
object, 7 arc-minutes to the west-northwest.

Estimated to be only about 50 and 100 miles in diameter,
respectively, the two Uranian satellites are the faintest ever
detected from the ground and are the first "irregular" moons
discovered since 1974, when Jupiter's Leda was found.

The small satellites are termed "irregular" because they apparently
follow eccentric and inclined paths, more than 6 million and 8
million kilometers, respectively, from Uranus, rather than the more
regular paths followed by most larger satellites in equatorial-plane
orbits around planets. They are the first irregular satellites
discovered at Uranus; Jupiter is known to have eight irregular
satellites, while Saturn and Neptune have at least one apiece.

"They also probably have an irregular -- rather than spherical --
shape," said Burns, the Irving P. Church Professor of Engineering and
professor of astronomy at Cornell.

"The larger of the two satellites appears quite red in color, which
may indicate a hydrocarbon surface that was bombarded by energetic
particles from space," Burns said, adding that the color of the
smaller moon will not be known until astronomers make further
observations of the objects. He called them "enormous, irregular
lumps of dark ice and gunk" that were once in their own orbits around
the Sun until they were "captured" by Uranus.

"We'll get a rough idea of their shape by watching the objects as
they rotate, but they really need to be visited by spacecraft to get
fine details," said Nicholson, a professor of astronomy at Cornell.
"We still know precious little about these irregular satellites."

For now, the two satellites are seen as fuzzy little dots on images
made with CCD (charged-couple detector) camera on the Hale telescope.
(The fuzziness is due to the light-distorting effect of Earth's
atmosphere; had the photographs been taken by the Hubble Space
Telescope, the moons would have appeared as more distinct, but
smaller, dots.) The astronomers made the discovery by comparing
photographs taken one hour apart and looking for objects that had
moved through the stationary background field of stars.

The study was supported in part by funding from the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and by Cornell
University, which underwrites a 25 percent share of observing time at
the Palomar Observatory. Gladman, who completed a Ph.D. in astronomy
at Cornell in 1996, is a postdoctoral associate at the University of
Toronto. Kavelaars is a postdoctoral associate at McMaster University
in Hamilton, Ontario.

At present, the newly discovered moons are designated with
astronomical code names S/1997 U1
[Image: http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~gladman/fcol.gif (295K)] and
S/1997 U2 [Image: http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~gladman/bright3.jpg
(51K)].  Following additional observations, the objects will be
certified by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as true
planetary satellites, and the discoverers will be allowed to suggest
more lyrical names. By astronomical convention, the planet's
previously discovered moons, including the last 10 found by the
Voyager spacecraft in 1986, carry names, such as Cordelia, Ophelia
and Ariel from works by Shakespeare and Pope.

"I guess that precludes my preference," Nicholson joked, "for naming
a moon after my cat, Squeaker." Certification by the IAU of newly
discovered planetary bodies can take up to two years, he said.

Meanwhile, Burns said, the discovery of two irregular objects
orbiting far from a giant planet "gives us one more clue to what the
environs of Uranus must have been like soon after its formation."

=======================================================================
From: Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov

(4) DISCOVERY OF TWO POSSIBLE SATELLITES OF URANUS

October 31, 1997

According to IAU Circular 6764, B. Gladman, P. Nicholson, J. Burns
and J. Kavelaars report the discovery of two possible satellites of
Uranus. The objects are designated S/1997 U 1 and S/1997 U 2. The
objects were detected from CCD images taken with the COSMIC camera on
the Hale 5-meter telescope at Palomar Observatory on September 6 and
7.  Both objects have also been observed in late October.

IAU Circular 6765 reports on the orbital computations done by Brian
Marsden and Garth Williams. Based on the latest observations, the
orbit of S/1997 U 2 is incompatible with a heliocentric orbit, and
has a better fit for a Uranus orbit. The orbit, however, appears to
be eccentric and is probably a retrogade orbit. The orbit solutions
for S/1997 U 1 are less conclusive due to it being the fainter of the
two objects, and harder to observe. Based on their magnitudes, the
preliminary estimates of the two objects' radii are 40 km and 80 km,
respectively.

Ron Baalke



CCCMENU CCC for 1997

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