PLEASE NOTE:


*
Date sent:        Wed, 05 Nov 1997 12:36:48 -0500 (EST)
From:             Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk
Subject:          CC-DIGEST 5 November 1997
To:               cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority:         NORMAL

CAMBRIDGE-CONFERENCE DIGEST, 5 November 1997
--------------------------------------------

(1) CANADA MAY FACE THE BIG QUAKE

(2) TUNGUSKA QUESTIONS

(3) TUNGUSKA ANSWERS

(4) THE AMERICAN METEOR SOCIETY - CHARLES P OLIVIER AWARD

=======================================================================

From: The Times, 3 November 1997

(1) CANADA MAY FACE THE BIG QUAKE

By Nigel Hawkes, Science Editor

Japanese historical records and the stumps of long dead cedar trees
have combined to reveal that a huge earthquake occurred nearly 300
years ago off the Pacific coast of North America. This was a century
before Europeans settled the area, and native Americans kept no
records. But thousands of miles across the Pacific, the Japanese
recorded a tsunami &shy; an ocean wave &shy; which swept ashore on January 27
and 28, 1700.

The Japanese team who dug up the records, led by Dr Kenji Satake of
the Geological Survey of Japan, could find no local earthquake able
to account for them. Along a considerable stretch of the Japanese
coast, waves up to ten feet high came ashore, doing sufficient damage
to feature in Japanese historical records. This was a modest tsunami,
but what puzzled the Japanese team was that they were unable to
identify the earthquake responsible. Tsunamis are caused by shifts in
the sea floor, often as a result of earthquakes, and travel across
the oceans at speeds close to 600 mph. They can be as tall as a
five-storey building, and do immense damage: a Chilean tsunami in
1960 killed 5,000 in South America, travelled across the Pacific and
killed another 61 in Hawaii and 150 in Japan.

Last January, the Japanese team reported in Nature that they believed
the origin of the 1700 tsunami to be the Cascadia subduction zone,
where the small Juan de Fuca plate (a slab of crust about the size of
England) slides below the North American plate along a 600-mile fault
stretching from British Columbia to northern California. From the
size of the tsunami, they estimated that it had been caused by an
earthquake of magnitude nine on the Richter Scale &shy; a really huge one
for an area known to be subject to earthquakes but with no
seismological records of any quakes greater than five.

Now a team from the University of Washington has added some
corroboration. They examined wood from long dead trees in the
tidal wetlands along 60 miles of the subduction zone, and used
tree-ring dating to try to discover exactly when they had died.
Decay had rotted the outer rings on the trunks of the trees, but
the roots gave more precise dates. In seven out of eight, the final
ring formed in 1699, and detailed examination pinned down the time of
death even more exactly, to the months between the end of the 1699
growing season in August and the beginning of the 1700 season in May.

"We are saying this huge earthquake really happened," says Dr David
Yamaguchi, leader of the team, which reports its results in the
current issue of Nature. The trees give no idea of the magnitude of
the quake, but the tsunami does. "By converging on January 1700, the
dates mean that Canada and the northwestern United States are
plausibly subject to earthquakes of magnitude nine," the team
concludes. Very few earthquakes this powerful have occurred anywhere
in the world this century. But if the analysis is right, it may be
that "the Big One" is not going to hit Los Angeles after all, but
further north.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Comment: There is no reason to doubt the possibility that earthquakes
of immense magnitude (nine on the Richter scale) might have occur from
time to time on the Pacific coast of North-America. But earthquakes
are certainly not the only trigger of major tsunamis and flood
disasters. A Tunguska-size object hitting the surface of one of the
world's oceans (instead of exploding in the atmosphere) would produce
the same kind of huge tidal waves whith similarly catastrophic
effects.

Benny J Peiser

=====================================================================
(2) TUNGUSKA QUESTIONS

From: Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov

I was cleaning out my desk, and I came across an article that I had
clipped out from Sky & Telescope titled "Tunguska's Smoking Gun?".  I
did not record the date of the article, but I think it is about 2 to
3 years old.

Anyway, if you will recall, there was a well-known explosion in 1908
over Siberia, the Tunguska explosion, which flattened several trees
[sic]. It was theorized that either a comet or asteroid had exploded
in the atmosphere, and the blast leveled the area underneath.
Several expeditions to the area did not turn up any fragments from
this exploding object, at least until I saw this article.

The article said that small particles from the impactor were found in
the tree resin in the Tunguska blast site (this is quite similar to
insects being trapped in tree sap, which later turns to amber).
The analysis of these particles match up well with a typical stony
meteorite, which is a strong indication the Tunguska object was an
asteroid. Included with the article is photo of a slice of the tree
trunk showing the brown resin with the trapped particles.

Ever since this article, I've seen any followup information, and I
was wondering if anyone has heard of any recent updates on this
particular subject.

Ron Baalke

========================================================================

(3) TUNGUSKA ANSWERS

From: Paolo Farinella <paolof@keplero.dm.unipi.it

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 3 Nov 1997 16:23:03 +0100 (CET)
From: "LONGO@BO.INFN.IT FAX:**39-51-247244"
Giuseppe.Longo@bo.infn.it
To: paolof@dm.unipi.it
Subject: Tunguska web page
 

In the Tunguska Web page of the University of Bologna

                 http://www-th.bo.infn.it/tunguska/

you can find the preliminary index of the special issue of "Planetary
and Space Sciences" with the Proceedings of the Tunguska 96
International Workshop, held in Bologna in July 1996.

The Web page contains information about the work of the group of the
University of Bologna, data on "Tunguska-related" asteroids, links to
Tunguska home pages in the world and related links.

=====================================================================

(4) THE AMERICAN METEOR SOCIETY - CHARLES P OLIVIER AWARD

From: Jim Richardson <richardson@digitalexp.com

The American Meteor Society is a non-profit scientific organization
established for the purpose of conducting, coordinating, and
encouraging amateur-professional collaboration in meteor astronomy.
As a result of a modest endowment from the Clinton B. Ford estate in
1993, the society wishes to regularly recognize those amateur
astronomers who have made a meritorious contribution to the field of
meteor science.

The Charles P. Olivier Award will consist of a plaque and modest cash
prize, awarded annually by the American Meteor Society Board of
Directors. Recipients will be officially recognized in the Society's
Annual Report, along with other AMS printed and electronic
publications.

The nominating procedure and criteria for receipt of the Charles P.
Olivier Award are as follows:

1.  The recipient must be an amateur worker in the field of meteor
science, and not professionally employed in the field.  Questions
regarding this "amateur" status will be resolved by the AMS Board of
Directors.

2.  The recipient need not be an American Meteor Society affiliate or
associate.

3.  AMS officers, that is, members of the Board of Directors or
Operations Staff, are not eligible for this award.  Affiliate group
directors may be considered only if they do not hold titled positions
within the staff.

4.  Nominations for the Charles P. Olivier Award may be made only by
American Meteor Society associates, affiliates, or officers.  Persons
may not nominate themselves.

5.  Nominations should consist of a one-page written description of
the nominee's meritorious service and reasons why they should receive
the award. Nominations will be received in either electronic or
printed format by the AMS Operations manager.

6.  Nominations will be received during the last quarter of each
calendar year, beginning October 1. Deadline for nominations will be
December 31.

7.  Nominations will be reviewed by the AMS staff and professional
advisors. Following review, nominations will be presented to the
Board of Directors for decision.

8.  The AMS Board of Directors will announce the Charles P. Olivier
Award winner during the first quarter of the year following
nomination submissions. The decision will be rendered no later than
March 31.

9.  If no suitable nominee is found, the Board of Directors will
retain the ability to forgo making the award.

10. No one may receive the award more than once.
-----------------------------------------------------------------

Send nominations to:

James Richardson
AMS Operations Manager
Route 2, Box 118
Graceville, FL  32440

Email:  richardson@digitalexp.com

Operations Manager / Radiometeor Project Coordinator
American Meteor Society (AMS)
http://www.serve.com/meteors/
 



*
From:             Bob Kobres <bkobres@uga.cc.uga.edu
Organization:     University of Georgia Libraries
To:               Benny J Peiser <B.J.PEISER@livjm.ac.uk
Date sent:        Wed, 5 Nov 1997 10:52:47 EST
Subject:          Re: TUNGUSKA QUESTIONS
Copies to:        cambridge-conference@livjm.ac.uk
Priority:         normal

There is a well done (even though it is published by the makers of Mickey
Mouse :) overview of "The Last Great Impact on Earth" at:

http://www.dc.enews.com/magazines/discover/magtxt/090196-1.html

The September, 96, article is by Richard Stone.

Another pertinent reference is: "An analytical model of the atmospheric
entry of large meteors and its application to the Tunguska Event" by J. E.
Lyne, M. Tauber, and R. Fought, in the "Journal of Geophysical Research,"
vol. 101, no. E10, pp 23,207-23,212, Oct. 25, 1996.

bobk

===================================================================== (2)
TUNGUSKA QUESTIONS

From: Ron Baalke <BAALKE@kelvin.jpl.nasa.gov

I was cleaning out my desk, and I came across an article that I had
clipped out from Sky & Telescope titled "Tunguska's Smoking Gun?".  I did
not record the date of the article, but I think it is about 2 to 3 years
old.

Anyway, if you will recall, there was a well-known explosion in 1908 over
Siberia, the Tunguska explosion, which flattened several trees [sic]. It
was theorized that either a comet or asteroid had exploded in the
atmosphere, and the blast leveled the area underneath.  Several
expeditions to the area did not turn up any fragments from this exploding
object, at least until I saw this article.

The article said that small particles from the impactor were found in the
tree resin in the Tunguska blast site (this is quite similar to insects
being trapped in tree sap, which later turns to amber). The analysis of
these particles match up well with a typical stony meteorite, which is a
strong indication the Tunguska object was an asteroid. Included with the
article is photo of a slice of the tree trunk showing the brown resin with
the trapped particles.

Ever since this article, I've seen any followup information, and I
was wondering if anyone has heard of any recent updates on this
particular subject.

Ron Baalke

========================================================================

(3) TUNGUSKA ANSWERS

From: Paolo Farinella <paolof@keplero.dm.unipi.it

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 3 Nov 1997 16:23:03 +0100 (CET)
From: "LONGO@BO.INFN.IT FAX:**39-51-247244"
Giuseppe.Longo@bo.infn.it
To: paolof@dm.unipi.it
Subject: Tunguska web page


In the Tunguska Web page of the University of Bologna

                  http://www-th.bo.infn.it/tunguska/

you can find the preliminary index of the special issue of "Planetary and
Space Sciences" with the Proceedings of the Tunguska 96 International
Workshop, held in Bologna in July 1996.

The Web page contains information about the work of the group of the
University of Bologna, data on "Tunguska-related" asteroids, links to
Tunguska home pages in the world and related links.

=====================================================================
 

Bob Kobres

email= <bkobres@uga.cc.uga.edu
url= http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk
phone= 706-542-0583



CCCMENU CCC for 1997

The content and opinions expressed on this Web page do not necessarily reflect the views of nor are they endorsed by the University of

The content and opinions expressed on this Web page do not necessarily reflect the views of nor are they endorsed by the University of Georgia or the University System of Georgia.